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Table 5 Logistic regression models to determine independent risk factors for having EPTB

From: Treatment outcomes and risk factors of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with co-morbidities

Variables Univariate analysis P-value Multivariate analysis P-value
COR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Gender
 Male 0.75 (0.66 to 0.86) <  0.001 0.65 (0.57 to 0.75) <  0.001
 Female 1.31 (1.16 to 1.49)   1.52 (1.31 to 1.74)  
Age (years)
 ≤ 15 1.115 (0.78 to 1.58) 0.541   
 16–25 1.11 (0.95 to 1.31) 0.170   
 26–35 0.90 (0.77 to 1.05) 0.198 ----------------------- -------
 36–45 0.96 (0.82 to 1.12) 0.604   
 46–55 1.02 (0.87 to 1.20) 0.741   
 56–65 0.94 (0.79 to 1.13) 0.566   
 ≥ 66 1.06 (0.87 to 1.28) 0.546   
Ethnicity
 Malay 1.33 (1.16 to 1.51) <  0.001 1.25 (1.05 to 1.48) 0.010
 Chinese 1.02 (0.89 to 1.17) 0.740 --------------------- -------
 Indian 1.58 (1.28 to 1.94) <  0.001 1.45 (1.14 to 1.84) 0.002
 Immigrants Indonesian 0.72 (0.55 to 0.94) 0.018 0.76 (0.56 to 1.02) 0.069
 Immigrants Philippines 0.65 (0.47 to 0.89) 0.008 0.77 (0.55 to 1.09) 0.144
 Sarawakian 0.61 (0.48 to 0.77) <  0.001 0.76 (0.58 to 0.99) 0.046
 Sabahian 0.80 (0.68 to 0.94) 0.009 0.91 (0.74 to 1.12) 0.388
 Others 1.63 (1.08 to 2.46) 0.019 1.51 (0.97 to 2.35) 0.064
Residence
 Urban 1.17 (1.03 to 1.33) 0.015 1.27 (1.10 to 1.45) 0.001
 Rural 0.85 (0.75 to 0.97)   0.78 (0.68 to 0.90)  
Patient category
 Unknown 0.30 (0.20 to 0.46) <  0.001 0.21 (0.12 to 0.35) <  0.001
 New 1.92 (1.53 to 2.40) <  0.001 1.57 (1.20 to 2.05) 0.001
 Relapse 0.73 (0.56 to 0.94) 0.017 4.65 (2.80 to 7.73) <  0.001
Co-morbidity
 Only TB 0.73 (0.65 to 0.83) <  0.001 0.89 (0.68 to 1.16) 0.406
 TB-DM 0.66 (0.56 to 0.78) <  0.001 0.67 (0.50 to 0.91) 0.011
 TB-HIV 2.35 (1.97 to 2.80) <  0.001 3.21 (2.34 to 4.40) <  0.001
 TB-Hep 0.99 (0.75 to 1.31) 0.990 --------------------- -------
 TB-DM-HIV 3.33 (1.34 to 8.27) 0.009 4.36 (1.65 to 11.47) 0.003
 TB-DM-Hep 1.30 (0.68 to 2.50) 0.419 ---------------------- -------
 TB-HIV-Hep 3.01 (2.30 to 3.95) <  0.001 4.08 (2.78 to 5.98) <  0.001
Smoking habit
 Ex-smoker 1.54 (1.28 to 1.84) <  0.001 1.53 (1.26 to 1.87) <  0.001
 No 0.96 (0.85 to 1.09) 0.599 ---------------------- -------
 Yes 0.85 (0.75 to 0.97) 0.017 0.78 (0.67 to 0.91) 0.001
Drinking Habit
 Unknown 0.73 (0.40 to 1.33) 0.314   
 No 0.95 (0.78 to 1.15) 0.623 ----------------------- -------
 Yes 1.10 (0.89 to 1.35) 0.356   
IVDUa
 Unknown 1.60 (1.01 to 2.53) 0.044 1.16 (0.67 to 2.01) 0.578
 No 0.75 (0.61 to 0.94) 0.012 0.93 (0.71 to 1.22) 0.624
 Yes 1.24 (0.98 to 1.58) 0.071 ---------------------- --------
Marital status
 Unknown 2.68 (1.63 to 4.42) <  0.001 2.75 (1.61 to 4.71) <  0.001
 Married 1.18 (1.03 to 1.34) 0.013 1.19 (1.03 to 1.38) 0.014
 Unmarried 0.80 (0.70 to 0.91) 0.001 0.36 (0.21 to 0.62) <  0.001
Education
 Unknown 0.87 (0.76 to 0.99) 0.041 0.95 (0.80 to 1.13) 0.603
 Primary 0.90 (0.73 to 1.10) 0.319 ---------------------- --------
 Secondary 1.23 (0.97 to 1.57) 0.081 ---------------------- --------
 College 0.89 (0.64 to 1.24) 0.499 ---------------------- --------
 University 1.10 (0.52 to 2.34) 0.790 ---------------------- --------
 Diploma 1.43 (0.88 to 2.33) 0.146 ---------------------- --------
 No formal education 1.55 (1.21 to 2.00) 0.001 1.36 (1.01 to 1.82) 0.037
Employment status
 Unknown 1.17 (0.99 to 1.39) 0.057   
 Employed 1.06 (0.92 to 1.21) 0.377 ---------------------- --------
 Unemployed 0.87 (0.77 to 0.99) 0.033   
  1. TB-DM Co-infection of TB and Diabetes Mellitus, TB-HIV Co-infection of TB and HIV, TB-Hep Co-infection of TB and Hepatitis, TB-DM-HIV Co-infection of TB with Diabetes Mellitus and HIV, TB-DM-Hep Co-infection of TB with Diabetes Mellitus and Hepatitis, TB-HIV-Hep Co-infection of TB with HIV and Hepatitis
  2. aIntravenous Drug Users