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Table 4 Logistic regression models to determine independent risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcomes among EPTB patients

From: Treatment outcomes and risk factors of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with co-morbidities

Variables Total 1222 Treatment outcomes Univariate analysis P- value Multivariate analysis P-value
n (%) Successful n (%) Unsuccessful n (%) COR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Gender
 Male 778(63.7) 514 (66.1) 264 (33.9) 0.82 (0.64 to 1.06) 0.131 --------------------- -------
 Female 444 (36.3) 312 (70.3) 132 (29.7) 1.21 (0.94 to 1.56)    
Age (years)
  ≤ 15 55 (4.5) 46 (83.6) 9 (16.4) 0.39 (0.19 to 0.81) 0.012 0.47 (0.23 to 1.02) 0.050
 16–25 177 (14.5) 129 (72.9) 48 (27.1) 0.67 (0.48 to 0.99) 0.094 --------------------- -------
 26–35 296 (24.2) 203 (68.6) 93 (31.4) 0.94 (0.71 to 1.24) 0.677 --------------------- -------
 36–45 224 (18.3) 146 (65.2) 78 (34.8) 1.14 (0.84 to 1.55) 0.393 --------------------- -------
 46–55 233 (19.1) 167 (71.7) 66 (28.3) 0.78 (0.57 to 1.08) 0.140 --------------------- -------
 56–65 170 (13.9) 90 (52.9) 80 (47.1) 2.07 (1.49 to 2.87) ≤ 0.001 1.65 (1.15 to 2.37) 0.006
  ≥ 66 67 (5.5) 43 (64.2) 24 (35.8) 1.17 (0.70 to 1.96) 0.539 --------------------- -------
Ethnicity
 Malay 389(31.8) 264 (67.9) 125 (32.1) 0.98 (0.75 to 1.27) 0.889 --------------------- -------
 Chinese 292 (23.9) 192 (65.8) 100 (34.2) 1.11 (0.84 to 1.47) 0.441 --------------------- -------
 Indian 128 (10.5) 80 (62.5) 48 (37.5) 1.28 (0.88 to 1.88) 0.194 --------------------- -------
 Immigrants Indonesian 63 (5.2) 42 (66.7) 21 (33.3) 1.04 (0.61 to 1.79) 0.872 --------------------- -------
 Immigrants Philippines 45 (3.7) 31 (68.9) 14 (31.1) 0.94 (0.49 to 1.78) 0.850 --------------------- -------
 Sarawakian 87 (7.1) 75 (86.2) 12 (13.8) 0.31 (0.16 to 0.58) ≤ 0.001 0.36 (0.19 to 0.69) 0.003
 Sabahian 189 (15.5) 122 (64.6) 67 (35.4) 1.17 (0.84 to 1.62) 0.331 --------------------- -------
 Others 29 (2.4) 20 (69) 9 (31) 0.93 (0.42 to 2.07) 0.873 --------------------- -------
Residency
 Urban 819 (67) 551 (67.3) 268 (32.7) 1.04 (0.80 to 1.34) 0.736 --------------------- -------
 Rural 403 (33) 275 (68.2) 128 (31.8) 0.95 (0.74 to 1.23)    
Patient category
 Unknown 23 (1.9) 20 (87) 3 (13) 0.30 (0.09 to 1.04) 0.058 --------------------- -------
 New 1131 (92.6) 773 (68.3) 358 (31.7) 0.64 (0.41 to 0.99) 0.049 3.27 (0.79 to 13.42) 0.099
 Relapse 68 (5.6) 33 (48.5) 35 (51.5) 2.33 (1.42 to 3.80) 0.001 7.07 (1.58 to 31.61) 0.010
Co-morbidity
 Only TB 697 (57) 494 (70.9) 203 (29.1) 0.70 (0.55 to 0.90) 0.005 1.01 (0.73 to 1.38) 0.938
 TB-DM 180 (14.7) 98 (54.4) 82 (45.6) 1.94 (1.40 to 2.67) ≤ 0.001 1.77 (1.16 to 2.69) 0.008
 TB-HIV 188 (15.4) 129 (15.4) 59 (31.4) 0.94 (0.67 to 1.32) 0.745 --------------------- -------
 TB-Hepatitis 60 (4.9) 43 (71.7) 17 (28.3) 0.81 (0.46 to 1.45) 0.490 --------------------- -------
 TB-DM-HIV 7 (0.6) 2 (28.6) 5 (71.4) 5.26 (1.01 to 27.27) 0.048 4.13 (0.76 to 22.40) 0.100
 TB-DM-Hepatitis 11 (0.9) 3 (27.3) 8 (72.7) 5.69 (1.50 to 21.58) 0.011 3.42 (0.83 to 14.07) 0.087
 TB-HIV-Hepatitis 79 (6.5) 56 (70.9) 23 (29.1) 0.90 (0.54 to 1.47) 0.679 ---------------------- -------
Smoking habit
 Ex-smoker 166 (13.6) 118 (71.1) 48 (28.9) 0.82 (0.57 to 1.18) 0.291 --------------------- -------
 No 647 (52.9) 455 (70.3) 192 (29.7) 0.76 (0.59 to 0.96) 0.026 1.03 (0.69 to 1.54) 0.856
 Yes 409 (33.5) 253 (61.9) 156 (38.1) 1.48 (1.15 to 1.91) 0.002 1.34 (0.86 to 2.07) 0.185
Drinking Habit
 Unknown 12 (1) 5 (41.7) 7 (58.3) 2.94 (0.92 to 9.33) 0.067   
 No 1094 (89.5) 741 (67.7) 353 (32.3) 0.84 (0.57 to 1.23) 0.379 --------------------- -------
 Yes 116 (9.5) 80 (69) 36 (31) 1.05 (0.70 to 1.58) 0.784   
IVDUa
 Unknown 23 (1.9) 11 (47.8) 12 (52.2) 2.30 (1.00 to 5.27) 0.048 1.79 (0.68 to 4.73) 0.237
 No 1113 (91) 761 (68.4) 352 (31.6) 0.65 (0.44 to 0.98) 0.041 0.91 (0.54 to 1.54) 0.732
 Yes 86 (7.1) 54 (62.8) 32 (37.2) 1.32 (0.84 to 2.07) 0.228 ---------------------- -------
Marital status
 Unknown 22 (1.8) 17 (77.3) 5 (22.7) 0.77 (0.30 to 1.99) 0.599 ---------------------- -------
 Married 539 (44.1) 265 (72) 103 (28) 0.75 (0.57 to 0.98) 0.039 1.27 (0.39 to 4.09) 0.681
 Unmarried 832 (68.1) 544 (65.4) 288 (34.6) 1.34 (1.03 to 1.74) 0.029 1.29 (0.41 to 4.01) 0.652
Education
 Unknown 876 (71.7) 627 (71.7) 249 (28.5) 0.53 (0.41 to 0.68) ≤ 0.001 0.73 (0.49 to 1.07) 0.112
 Primary 111 (9.1) 67 (59.8) 44 (39.2) 1.44 (0.97 to 2.15) 0.069 ---------------------- ------
 Secondary 84 (6.9) 41 (48.8) 43 (51.2) 2.32 (1.48 to 3.62) ≤ 0.001 1.88 (1.08 to 3.28) 0.025
 College 42 (3.4) 30 (71.4) 12 (28.6) 0.82 (0.41 to 1.63) 0.582 --------------------- --------
 University 8 (0.7) 4 (50) 4 (50) 2.08 (0.52 to 8.39) 0.299 --------------------- --------
 Diploma 20 (1.6) 18 (90) 2 (10) 0.22 (0.05 to 0.98) 0.047 0.20 (0.04 to 0.91) 0.038
 No formal education 81 (6.6) 38 (46.9) 43 (53.1) 2.51 (1.59 to 3.96) ≤ 0.001 2.26 (1.25 to 4.09) 0.001
Employment status
 Unknown 188 (15.4) 129 (68.6) 59 (31.4) 0.94 (0.67 to 1.31) 0.725 --------------------- --------
 Employed 342 (28) 226 (66.1) 116 (33.9) 1.09 (0.83 to 1.42) 0.514   
 Unemployed 692 (56.6) 470 (67.9) 222 (32.1) 0.96 (0.75 to 1.22) 0.742   
  1. TB-DM Co-infection of TB and Diabetes Mellitus, TB-HIV Co-infection of TB and HIV, TB-Hepatitis Co-infection of TB and Hepatitis, TB-DM-HIV Co-infection of TB with Diabetes Mellitus and HIV, TB-DM-Hepatitis Co-infection of TB with Diabetes Mellitus and Hepatitis, TB-HIV-Hepatitis Co-infection of TB with HIV and Hepatitis
  2. aIntravenous Drug Users