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Table 3 Distribution and frequency of different types of co-morbidities among patients with EPTB (n = 1222)

From: Treatment outcomes and risk factors of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with co-morbidities

Variables Total 1222 (%) TB only n = 697 (%) TB-DM n = 180 (%) TB-HIV n = 188 (%) TB-Hepatitis n = 60 (%) TB-DM-HIV n = 7 (%) TB-DM-Hepatitis n = 11 (%) TB-HIV-Hepatitis n = 79 (%) P-value
Gender
 Male 778(63.7) 381 (54.7) 93 (51.7) 178 (94.7) 33 (55) 7 (100) 10 (90.1) 76 (96.2) <  0.001
 Female 444 (36.3) 316 (45.3) 87 (48.3) 10 (5.3) 27 (45) 0 1 (9.9) 3 (3.8)  
Age (years)
 ≤ 15 55 (4.5) 47 (6.7) 3 (1.7) 1 (0.5) 2 (3.3) 1 (14.3) 0 1 (1.3)  
 16–25 177 (14.5) 136 (19.5) 11 (6.1) 13 (6.9) 8 (13.3) 1 (14.3) 2 (18.2) 6 (7.6)  
 26–35 296 (24.2) 169 (24.2) 30 (16.7) 66 (35) 9 (15) 1 (14.3) 2 (18.2) 19 (24.1) <  0.001
 36–45 224 (18.3) 103 (14.8) 22 (12.2) 52 (27.7) 15 (25) 1 (14.3) 0 31 (39.2)  
 46–55 233 (19.1) 114 (16.4) 54 (30) 36 (19.1) 14 (23.3) 0 0 15 (19)  
 56–65 170 (13.9) 81 (11.6) 51 (28.3) 16 (8.5) 7 (11.7) 3 (42.9) 6 (54.5) 6 (7.6)  
 ≥ 66 67 (5.5) 47 (6.7) 9 (5) 4 (2.1) 5 (8.3) 0 1 (9.1) 1 (1.3)  
Race
 Malay 389(31.8) 183 (26.3) 54 (30) 89 (47.3) 22 (36.7) 2 (28.6) 4 (36.4) 35 (44.3)  
 Chinese 292 (23.9) 155 (22.2) 43 (23.9) 52 (27.7) 19 (31.7) 2 (28.6) 2 (18.2) 19 (24.1)  
 Indian 128 (10.5) 66 (9.5) 21 (11.7) 21 (11.2) 6 (10) 2 (28.6) 2 (18.2) 10 (12.7)  
 Immigrants Indonesian 63 (5.2) 40 (5.7) 12 (6.7) 5 (2.7) 2 (3.3) 0 0 4 (5.1) <  0.001
 Immigrants Philippines 45 (3.7) 30 (4.3) 12 (6.7) 1 (0.5) 0 0 1 (9.1) 1 (1.3)  
 Sarawakian 87 (7.1) 58 (8.3) 15 (8.3) 7 (3.7) 3 (5) 0 0 4 (5.1)  
 Sabahian 189 (15.5) 149 (21.4) 22 (12.2) 5 (2.7) 7 (11.7) 1 (14.3) 2 (18.2) 3 (3.8)  
 Others 29 (2.4) 16 (2.3) 1 (0.6) 8 (4.3) 1 (1.7) 0 0 3 (3.8)  
Patient category
 Unknown 23 (1.9) 9 (1.3) 1 (0.6) 11 (5.9) 0 0 0 2 (2.5) <  0.001
 New 1131 (92.6) 652 (93.5) 169 (93.8) 166 (88.2) 57 (95) 7 (100) 6 (54.5) 74 (93.7)  
 Relapse 68 (5.6) 36 (5.2) 10 (5.6) 11 (5.9) 3 (5) 0 5 (45.5) 3 (3.8)  
Residency
 Urban 819 (67) 494 (70.9) 149 (82.8) 88 (46.8) 46 (76.7) 1 (14.3) 10 (90.1) 31 (39.2) <  0.001
 Rural 403 (33) 203 (29.1) 31 (17.2) 100 (53.2) 14 (23.3) 6 (85.7) 1 (9.1) 48 (60.8)  
Smoking habit
 Ex-smoker 166 (13.6) 105 (15.1) 38 (21.1) 8 (4.3) 11 (18.3) 0 1 (9.1) 3 (3.8) <  0.001
 No 647 (52.9) 402 (57.7) 91 (50.6) 85 (45.2) 28 (46.7) 1 (14.3) 5 (45.5) 35 (44.3)  
 Yes 409 (33.5) 190 (27.3) 51 (28.3) 95 (50.5) 21 (35) 6 (85.7) 5 (45.5) 41 (51.9)  
Drinking Habit
 Unknown 12 (1) 5 (0.7) 2 (1.1) 2 (1.1) 0 0 0 3 (3.8) <  0.001
 No 1094 (89.5) 660 (94.7) 176 (97.8) 127 (67.6) 56 (93.3) 5 (71.4) 10 (90.1) 60 (75.9)  
 Yes 116 (9.5) 32 (4.6) 2 (1.1) 59 (31.4) 4 (6.7) 2 (28.6) 1 (9.1) 16 (20.3)  
IVDUa
 Unknown 23 (1.9) 7 (1) 0 2 (1.1) 1 (1.7) 1 (14.3) 0 12 (15.2) <  0.001
 No 1113 (91) 659 (94.5) 177 (98.3) 152 (80.9) 53 (88.3) 4 (57.1) 10 (90.1) 58 (73.4)  
 Yes 86 (7.1) 31 (4.4) 3 (1.7) 34 (18.1) 6 (10) 2 (28.6) 1 (9.1) 9 (11.4)  
Marital status
 Unknown 22 (1.8) 6 (0.9) 1 (0.6) 12 (6.4) 0 0 0 3 (3.8) <  0.001
 Married 539 (44.1) 224 (32.1) 45 (25) 51 (27.1) 18 (30) 1 (14.3) 1 (9.1) 28 (35.5)  
 Unmarried 832 (68.1) 467 (67) 134 (74.4) 125 (66.5) 42 (70) 6 (85.7) 10 (90.1) 48 (60.8)  
Education
 Unknown 876 (71.7) 512 (73.5) 119 (66.1) 121 (64.4) 46 (76.7) 4 (57.1) 8 (72.7) 65 (82.3)  
 Primary 111 (9.1) 69 (9.9) 15 (8.3) 17 (9) 3 (5) 1 (14.3) 1 (9.1) 6 (7.6)  
 Secondary 84 (6.9) 52 (7.5) 23 (12.8) 4 (2.1) 3 (5) 1 (14.3) 1 (9.1) 0  
 College 42 (3.4) 20 (2.9) 10 (5.6) 8 (4.3) 3 (5) 0 0 1 (1.3) <  0.001
 University 8 (0.7) 5 (0.7) 0 3 (1.6) 0 0 0 0  
 Diploma 20 (1.6) 7 (1) 2 (1.1) 9 (4.8) 0 0 0 2 (2.5)  
 No formal education 81 (6.6) 32 (4.6) 11 (6.1) 26 (13.8) 5 (8.3) 1 (14.3) 1 (9.1) 5 (6.3)  
Employment status
 Unknown 188 (15.4) 76 (10.9) 26 (14.4) 67 (35.6) 4 (6.7) 0 1 (9.1) 14 (17.7) <  0.001
 Employed 342 (28) 200 (28.7) 63 (35) 44 (23.4) 19 (31.7) 4 (57.1) 4 (36.4) 12 (15.2)  
 Unemployed 692 (56.6) 421 (60.4) 91 (50.6) 77 (41) 37 (61.7) 3 (42.9) 6 (54.5) 53 (67.1)  
  1. TB-DM Co-infection of TB and Diabetes Mellitus, TB-HIV Co-infection of TB and HIV, TB-Hepatitis Co-infection of TB and Hepatitis, TB-DM-HIV Co-infection of TB with Diabetes Mellitus and HIV, TB-DM-Hepatitis Co-infection of TB with Diabetes Mellitus and Hepatitis, TB-HIV-Hepatitis Co-infection of TB with HIV and Hepatitis
  2. aIntravenous Drug Users