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Table 2 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of EPTB patients (n = 1222)

From: Treatment outcomes and risk factors of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with co-morbidities

Variables Total n = 1222 (%) Lymph node n = 324 (%) Pleural effusion n = 227 (%) Meningitis n = 122 (%) Miliary n = 113 (%) Bones n = 116 (%) Gastro-intestinal n = 105 (%) Spinal n = 93 (%) Others n = 122 (%)
Gender
 Male 778(63.7) 214 (27.5) 155 (19.9) 75 (9.6) 83 (10.7) 72 (9.3) 55 (7.1) 61 (7.8) 63 (8.1)
 Female 444 (36.3) 110 (24.8) 72 (16.2) 47 (10.6) 30 (6.8) 44 (9.9) 50 (11.3) 32 (7.2) 59 (13.3)
Age (years)
 ≤ 15 55 (4.5) 14 (25.5) 7 (12.7) 7 (12.7) 2 (3.6) 0 11 (20) 4 (7.3) 10 (18.2)
 16–25 177 (14.5) 50 (28.2) 28 (15.8) 13 (7.3) 13 (7.3) 21 (11.9) 26 (14.7) 4 (2.3) 22 (12.4)
 26–35 296 (24.2) 118 (39.9) 33 (11.1) 28 (9.5) 30 (10.1) 34 (11.5) 17 (5.7) 10 (3.4) 26 (8.8)
 36–45 224 (18.3) 54 (24.1) 42 (18.8) 25 (11.2) 21 (9.4) 23 (10.3) 16 (7.1) 28 (12.5) 15 (6.7)
 46–55 233 (19.1) 46 (19.7) 47 (20.2) 20 (8.6) 23 (9.9) 23 (9.9) 24 (10.3) 27 (11.6) 23 (9.9)
 56–65 170 (13.9) 36 (21.2) 46 (27.1) 23 (13.5) 15 (8.8) 11 (6.5) 9 (5.3) 14 (8.2) 16 (9.4)
 ≥ 66 67 (5.5) 6 (9) 24 (35.8) 6 (9) 9 (13.4) 4 (6) 2 (3) 6 (9) 10 (14.9)
Race
 Malay 389(31.8) 132 (33.9) 62 (15.9) 26 (6.7) 34 (8.7) 39 (10) 31 (8) 31 ((8) 34 (8.7)
 Chinese 292 (23.9) 78 (26.7) 61 (20.9) 26 (8.9) 26 (8.9) 29 (9.9) 24 (8.2) 23 (7.9) 25 (8.6)
 Indian 128 (10.5) 34 (26.6) 30 (23.4) 6 (4.7) 16 (12.5) 10 (7.8) 12 (9.4) 10 (7.8) 10 (7.8)
 Immigrants Indonesian 63 (5.2) 13 (20.6) 16 (25.4) 7 (11.1) 7 (11.1) 7 (11.1) 5 (7.9) 4 (6.3) 4 (6.3)
 Immigrants Philippines 45 (3.7) 4 (8.9) 6 (13.3) 11 (24.4) 2 (4.4) 2 (4.4) 8 (17.8) 3 (6.7) 9 (14.3)
 Sarawakian 87 (7.1) 15 (17.2) 25 (28.7) 3 (3.4) 2 (2.3) 12 (13.8) 2 (2.3) 7 (8) 21 (24)
 Sabahian 189 (15.5) 36 (19) 18 (9.5) 42 (22.2) 26 (13.8) 16 (8.5) 21 (11.1) 13 (6.9) 17 (9)
 Others 29 (2.4) 12 (41.4) 9 (31) 1 (3.4) 0 1 (3.4) 2 (6.9) 2 (6.9) 2 (6.9)
Residence
 Urban 819 (67) 194 (23.7) 177 (21.6) 77 (9.4) 66 (8.1) 81 (10) 75 (9.2) 56 (6.8) 93 (11.4)
 Rural 403 (33) 130 (32.3) 50 (12.4) 45 (11.2) 47 (11.7) 35 (8.7) 30 (7.4) 37 (9.2) 29 (7.2)
Patient category
 Unknown 23 (1.9) 5 (21.7) 7 (30.4) 0 4 (17.4) 3 (13) 0 1 (4.3) 3 (13)
 New 1131 (92.6) 304 (26.9) 206 (18.2) 115 (10.2) 103 (9.1) 110 (9.7) 95 (8.4) 86 (7.6) 112 (9.9)
 Relapse 68 (5.6) 15 (22.1) 14 (20.6) 7 (10.3) 6 (8.8) 3 (4.4) 10 (14.7) 6 (8.8) 7 (10.3)
Co-morbidity
 Only TB 697 (57) 165 (23.7) 111 (15.9) 70 (10) 75 (10.8) 74 (10.6) 68 (9.8) 50 (7.2) 84 (12.1)
 TB-DM 180 (14.7) 40 (22.2) 61 (33.9) 16 (8.9) 7 (3.9) 10 (5.6) 17 (9.4) 13 (7.2) 16 (8.9)
 TB-HIV 188 (15.4) 70 (37.2) 22 (11.7) 20 (10.6) 18 (9.6) 23 (12.2) 11 (5.9) 9 (4.8) 15 (8)
 TB-Hep 60 (4.9) 9 (15) 16 (26.7) 6 (10) 4 (4.7) 3 (5) 3 (5) 15 (25) 4 (4.7)
 TB-DM-HIV 7 (0.6) 3 (42.9) 2 (28.6) 1 (14.3) 0 0 0 0 1 (14.3)
 TB-DM-Hep 11 (0.9) 1 (9.1) 2 (18.2) 2 (18.2) 1 (9.1) 0 4 (36.4) 1 (9.1) 0
 TB-HIV-Hep 79 (6.5) 36 (45.6) 13 (16.5) 7 (8.9) 8 (10.1) 6 (7.6) 2 (2.5) 5 (6.3)0 2 (2.5)
Smoking habit
 Ex-smoker 166 (13.6) 28 (16.9) 33 (19.9) 12 (7.2) 24 (14.5) 12 (7.2) 27 (16.3) 7 (4.2) 23 (13.9)
 No 647 (52.9) 180 (27.8) 114 (17.6) 62 (9.6) 57 (8.8) 56 (8.7) 58 (7) 50 (7.7) 70 (10.8)
 Yes 409 (33.5) 116 (28.4) 80 (19.6) 48 (11.7) 32 (7.8) 48 (11.7) 20 (4.9) 36 (8.8) 29 (7.1)
Drinking Habit
 Unknown 12 (1) 2 (16.7) 2 (16.7) 2 (16.7) 0 0 1 (8.3) 1 (8.3) 4 (33.3)
 No 1094 (89.5) 291 (26.6) 207 (18.9) 110 (10.1) 96 (8.8) 105 (9.6) 97 (8.9) 78 (7.1) 110 (10.1)
 Yes 116 (9.5) 31 (26.7) 18 (15.5) 10 (8.6) 17 (14.7) 11 (9.5) 7 (6) 14 (12.1) 8 (6.9)
IVDUa
 Unknown 23 (1.9) 7 (30.4) 7 (30.4) 1 (4.3) 3 (13) 1 (4.3) 2 (8.7) 1 (4.3) 1 (4.3)
 No 1113 (91) 301 (27) 205 (18.4) 105 (9.4) 100 (9) 111 (10) 96 (8.6) 86 (7.8) 109 (9.8)
 Yes 86 (7.1) 16 (18.6) 15 (17.4) 16 (18.6) 10 (11.6) 4 (4.7) 7 (8.1) 6 (7) 12 (14)
Marital status
 Unknown 22 (1.8) 4 (18.2) 6 (27.3) 2 (9.1) 5 (22.7) 2 (9.1) 0 0 3 (13.6)
 Married 539 (44.1) 99 (26.9) 72 (19.6) 35 (9.5) 46 (12.5) 32 (8.7) 35 (9.5) 17 (4.6) 32 (8.7)
 Unmarried 832 (68.1) 221 (26.6) 149 (17.9) 85 (10.2) 62 (7.5) 82 (9.9) 70 (8.4) 76 (9.1) 87 (10.5)
Education
 Unknown 876 (71.7) 224 (25.6) 162 (18.5) 97 (11.1) 84 (9.6) 78 (8.9) 80 (9.1) 63 (7.2) 88 (10)
 Primary 111 (9.1) 40 (36) 13 (11.7) 7 (6.3) 9 (8.1) 13 (11.7) 8 (7.2) 7 (6.3) 14 (12.6)
 Secondary 84 (6.9) 17 (20.2) 22 (26.2) 8 (9.5) 6 (7.1) 8 (9.5) 10 (11.9) 5 (6) 8 (9.5)
 College 42 (3.4) 23 (54.8) 7 (16.7) 0 1 (2.4) 1 (2.4) 2 (4.8) 5 (11.9) 3 (7.1)
 University 8 (0.7) 1 (12.5) 3 (37.5) 0 1 (12.5) 0 0 1 (12.5) 2 (25)
 Diploma 20 (1.6) 5 (25 1 (5) 0 0 10 (50) 1 (5) 3 (15) 0
 No formal education 81 (6.6) 14 (17.3) 19 (23.5) 10 (12.3) 12 (14.8) 6 (7.4) 4 (4.9) 9 (11.1) 7 (8.6)
Employment status
 Unknown 188 (15.4) 54 (28.7) 28 (14.9) 9 (4.8) 22 (11.7) 15 (8) 16 (8.5) 33 (17.6) 11 (5.9)
 Employed 342 (28) 104 (30.4) 67 (19.6) 30 (8.8) 25 (7.3) 42 (12.3) 22 (6.4) 26 (7.6) 26 (7.6)
 Unemployed 692 (56.6) 166 (24) 132 (19.1) 83 (12) 66 (9.5) 59 (8.5) 67 (9.7) 34 (4.9) 85 (12.3)
  1. TB-DM Co-infection of TB and Diabetes Mellitus, TB-HIV Co-infection of TB and HIV, TB-Hep Co-infection of TB and Hepatitis, TB-DM-HIV Co-infection of TB with Diabetes Mellitus and HIV, TB-DM-Hep Co-infection of TB with Diabetes Mellitus and Hepatitis, TB-HIV-Hep Co-infection of TB with HIV and Hepatitis
  2. aIntravenous Drug Users