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Table 4 Summary of results from studies reporting anti-HCV prevalence in PWID

From: Prevalence of hepatitis C infection among the general population and high-risk groups in the EU/EEA: a systematic review update

Author, year Country Recruiting period Population as reported Age, mean (SD) Sample size Anti-HCV prevalence (%) (95% CI) Risk of selection bias
Aisyah, 2018 [48] UK 2011–2013 Vulnerable populations in London 1207 11.40 (–) Low risk
Hope, 2016 [49] UK 1992–2013 Image and performance-enhancing drugs injectors in England and Wales 343 7.90 (–) Low risk
Hope, 2015 [50] UK Since 1990 PWID from needle and syringe, opiate substitution treatment except for Scotland 123 41.70 (–) Low risk
Valencia, 2018 [51] Spain January 2013–December 2016 PWUD who actively consumed heroin and/or cocaine, either smoked or injected 41.3(8.50) 946 33.30 (–) High risk
Folch, 2016 [52] Spain 2010–2011 PWID in harm reduction centres in Catalonia 754 72.00 (68.8–75.2) Low risk
Leon, 2016 [53] France 2004 and 2011 IDU 1242 43.40 (39.00–47.90) Low risk
Weill-Barillet, 2016 [54] France 2011 Drug users having injected or snorted drugs at least once in their life 39.0(−) 960 64.00 (59.20–68.20) Low risk
Sypasa, 2017 [55] Greece 2012–2013 During an HIV outbreak among PWID in Athens 431 49.90 (45.00–54.70) High risk
Sheka, 2014 [56] Greece January 1997–December 2007 Intravenous drug users who attended the Greek Organisation against Drugs 2668 72.20 (–) High risk
Derks, 2018 [57] Germany 2011–2014 Current injectors in 8 German cities 1318 64.60 (–) Low risk
Tarjan, 2017 [58] Hungary 2011 and 2014 PWID injecting in the last month and attending SEPs or drug treatment centres 365 65.00 (–) Low risk
Handanagic, 2016 [59] Croatia November 2014–February 2015 PWID in the cities of Zagreb, Split and Rijeka 399 38.30 (31.40–44.30) Low risk
Kaberg, 2017 [60] Sweden 7 April 2013–16 October 2014 PWID in the Stockholm needle exchange program (NEP) 39.3(1) 1386 82.00 (–) High risk
Keegan, 2017 [61] Ireland 31 January 2015 Patients attending agonist opioid treatment in a clinic in Dublin 50.2(18.3) 228 63.60 (–) High risk
Skocibusic, 2016 [62] Bosnia and Herzegovina PWID of both sexes included in opiate substitution treatment in the southern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina 120 52.50 (–) High risk
Svendsen, 2017 [63] Norway September 2015–November 2016 PWID in local opioid substitution clinic and day centres in Trondheim, Norway 304 41.00 (–) High risk
Nosotti, 2016 [64] Italy IDU sample in Rome 261 41.70 (–) High risk