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Table 1 Characteristics of patients in the oral switch stewardship program

From: Intravenous-to-oral antibiotic switch therapy: a cross-sectional study in critical care units

Data All (n = 349) No oral switch (n = 238) Oral switch (n = 111) P-value Odds ratio Multivariable analysis
N %   %   %
Male 208 59.7% 132 56% 77 69% 0.010 1.79 (1.11–2.89) NS
Female 140 40.3% 106 45% 34 31%    
Heart failure class IV 41 12% 25 11% 16 15% 0.181   
Immunosuppression 27 8% 17 7% 10 9% 0.324   
Cirrhosis 7 2% 5 2.1% 2 1.8% 0.662   
Site of infection
 Respiratory 189 54.3% 122 51.3% 67 60.9%    
 Urinary 38 10.9% 32 13.4% 6 5.5%    
 Abdominal 45 12.9% 37 15.5% 8 7.3%    
 Bloodstream 24 6.9% 22 9.2% 2 1.8%    
 Skin and soft tissue 25 7.2% 11 4.6% 14 12.7%    
 Central nervous system 4 1.1% 4 1.7% 0 0%    
 Others 7 2.4% 0 0% 7 6.3%    
 Undefined 15 4.3% 10 4.2% 5 4.5%    
Vasoactive drug
 Vasopressin 71 20.4% 62 26.1% 9 8.2% < 0.001 0.25 (0.12–0.53) NS
 Noradrenalin 205 58.9% 137 57.6% 68 61.8% 0.264   
 Dobutamine 153 44% 117 49.2% 36 32.7%   
Acute Kidney Injury 69 19.8% 54 22.6% 15 13.5% 0.032   NS
Antibiotic
 Aminoglycoside 75 21.6% 31 26.1% 22 11.8% 0.002 0.38 (0.19–0.72) 0.014
 Polymyxin 12 3.4% 11 4.6% 1 0.9% 0.065   
 Cefazolin 8 2.3% 1 0% 7 6.4% 0.002 16.1 (1.97–132.59) 0.004
 Ceftriaxone 112 32.2% 82 34.5% 30 27.3% 0.113   
 Cefepime 122 34.2% 82 34.5% 40 36.4% 0.409   
 Carbapenem 39 11.2% 37 15.5% 2 1.8% < 0.001 0.10 (0.02–0.42) NS
 Quinolone 77 22.1% 10 4.2% 67 60.9% < 0.001 40.71 (19.76–83.89) < 0.001
 Vancomycin 95 27.3% 86 36.1% 9 8.2% < 0.001 0.15 (0.07–0.32) NS
 SMX/TMP 24 6.9% 16 6.7% 8 7.3% 0.506   
 Metronidazole/clindamycin 50 14.3% 37 15.5% 13 11.8% 0.226   
 Macrolide 24 6.9% 15 6.0% 9 8.2% 0.332   
 Penicillin 39   8 3.4% 31 28.2% < 0.001 11.28 (4.97–25.56) 0.001
Mortality 44 12.6% 35 14.7% 9 8.2% 0.060   
Age 64 (53–73)   65 (55–74)   64 (51–73)   0.327   
APACHE II score 15.5 (12–19)   16.5 (13–19)   15 (14–17)   0.061   0.003
SOFA score 3 (2–5)   3 (2–5)   3 (2–4)   0.112   
IV antibiotic duration (days) 5 (4–7)   7 (5–10)   3 (2–4)   < 0.001   NS
Oral antibiotic duration (days)    0   4 (3–5)    
Mechanical ventilation (days) 3 (2–4)   3 (2–4)   3 (1.75–4)   0.008   NS
Total hospitalization (days) 13 (8–21)   13 (8–22)   13(8–20)   0.665   
Days in the ICU 6 (4–9)   6 (4–10)   5 (3–7)   0.029   NS
  1. Penicillins – ampicillin/sulbactam; amoxicillin; amoxicillin/clavulanate
  2. SOFA Sequential organ failure assessment, IV Intravenous, ICU Intensive care unit, SMX/TMP Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, APACHE Acute physiologic assessment and chronic health evaluation