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Table 2 Comparison of PCR and culture results for detecting S. pneumoniae among children in Palwal, India

From: Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes among children in India prior to the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: a cross-sectional study

  Children with suspected pneumonia (n = 91) Children in the community (n = 510)
Culture positive, n (%) 61 (67.0) 268 (52.6)
PCR positive, n (%) 64 (70.3) 259 (50.8)
Culture or PCR positive, n (%) 68 (74.7) 278 (54.5)
PCR positive/culture positive, n (%) 57 (62.6) 249 (48.8)
PCR positive/culture negative, n (%) a 7 (7.7) 10 (2.0)
PCR negative/culture positive, n (%) b 4 (4.4) 19 (3.7)
PCR negative/culture negative, n (%) 23 (25.3) 232 (45.5)
Multiple serotypes present if culture positive, n (%) 1 (1.1) 7 (1.4)
Multiple serotypes present if PCR positive, n (%) 14 (15.4) 21 (4.1)
Multiple serotypes present if culture or PCR positive, n (%) 18 (19.8) 29 (5.7)
  1. aSerotypes: children with clinical pneumonia: 6A/B/C/D, 10A, 19A, 23F, 31, 35F/47F, 39; community children: 5, 7C/B/40, 9 N/L, 10F/C/33C, 14, 16F, 24F/A/B, 25F/A/38, 34, 35B
  2. bSerotypes: children with clinical pneumonia: 33B; community children: 10B, 27, 33B, 48, non-typeable