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Table 1 Characteristics of children 2–59 months of age in Palwal, India and correlates of pneumococcal colonization

From: Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes among children in India prior to the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic Children with clinical pneumonia (n = 91) Children in the community (n = 510) p-valuec
Total N (%)a Colonized N (%)a p-valueb Total N (%)a Colonized N (%)a p-valueb
Sex    0.75    0.81 0.08
 Male 54 (59.3) 41 (75.9)   253 (49.6) 139 (55.1)   
 Female 37 (40.7) 27 (73.0)   257 (50.4) 139 (54.1)   
Age (months)    0.98    0.69 0.22
 2–11 23 (25.3) 17 (73.9)   130 (25.5) 75 (57.7)   
 12–23 27 (29.7) 20 (74.1)   111 (21.8) 60 (54.1)   
 24–59 41 (45.1) 31 (75.6)   269 (52.8) 143 (53.2)   
Recruitment location, n (%)        < 0.0001
 District hospital 15 (16.5) 13 (86.7) 0.21 10 (2.0) 2 (20.0) 0.06  
 Private hospitals 6 (6.6) 3 (50.0)   0 0   
 Primary care clinics 70 (76.9) 52 (74.3)   14 (2.7) 6 (42.9)   
 Anganwadi centersd 0 0   486 (95.3) 270 (55.6)   
Weight-for-age Z-score    0.95    0.25 0.31
  < −3 22 (24.2) 17 (77.3)   117 (23.0) 64 (54.7)   
 −3 to < −2 31 (34.1) 23 (74.2)   138 (27.2) 83 (60.1)   
  ≥ −2 38 (41.8) 28 (73.7)   253 (49.8) 130 (51.4)   
Length-for-age Z-score    0.60    0.41 0.02
  < −3 15 (16.9) 10 (66.7)   110 (21.7) 62 (56.4)   
 −3 to < −2 10 (11.2) 7 (70.0)   110 (21.7) 65 (59.1)   
  ≥ −2 64 (71.9) 50 (78.1)   288 (56.7) 150 (52.1)   
Weight-for-length Z-score    0.33    0.33 0.03
  < −3 22 (24.7) 17 (77.3)   96 (18.9) 48 (50.0)   
 −3 to < −2 22 (24.7) 14 (63.6)   82 (16.2) 50 (61.0)   
  ≥ −2 45 (50.6) 36 (80.0)   329 (64.9) 178 (54.1)   
Received antibiotics in past 48 h    0.04   n/a   n/a
 No - definitely/unlikely 46 (50.5) 39 (84.8)      
 Yes - definitely/likely 18 (19.8) 10 (55.6)      
 Unknown 27 (29.7) 19 (70.4)      
Danger signs    1   n/a   n/a
 None 71 (80.7) 52 (73.2)      
 Any 17 (19.3) 13 (76.5)      
Tachypnea    1   n/a   n/a
 No 1 (1.1) 1 (100.0)      
 Yes 88 (98.9) 66 (75.0)      
Duration of illness    0.74   n/a   n/a
 1–2 days 58 (63.7) 44 (75.9)      
  ≥ 3 days 33 (36.3) 24 (72.7)      
Hospitalized    0.60   n/a   
 No 85 (94.4) 64 (75.3)      
 Yes 5 (5.6) 3 (60.0)      
  1. n/a – not applicable
  2. aPercentages provided in the ‘Total’ column are column percentages; Percentages provided in the ‘Colonized’ column are row percentages
  3. bp-value for comparison of the proportion colonized within each study population using chi-square tests
  4. cp-value for comparison of characteristics between study populations (children with clinical pneumonia and community children) using chi-square tests for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for continuous variables
  5. dDaycare center