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Table 3 Bivariate analysis of STH and Schistosomiasis practices and knowledge levels among caregivers, (n = 442)

From: Knowledge, attitudes and practices on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths among caregivers in Ingwavuma area in uMkhanyakude district, South Africa

Schistosomiasis Soil transmitted helminths
  Response Practices X2 p-value Knowledge X2 p-value Practices X2 p-value Knowledge X2 p-value
Poor: n (%) Good: n (%) Poor: n (%) Good: n (%)
Gender Male 6 (1.4) 22 (4.98) 0.113 26 (5.9) 2 (0.5) 0.222 9 (2.0) 19 (4.2) 0.464 21 (4.8) 7 (1.6) 0.444
Female 150 (33.9) 264 (59.7) 349 (79.0) 45 (10.2) 107 (24.2) 307 (69.5) 335 (75.8) 79 (17.9)
Age 15–34 91 (20.6) 188 (42.5) 0.123 238 (53.4) 41 (9.3) 0.722 63 (14.3) 216 (48.9) 0.022 226 (51.1) 53 (12.0) 0.749
35+ 65 (14.7) 98 (22.2) 137 (31.0) 26 (5.9) 53 (12.0) 119 (26.9) 130 (29.4) 33 (7.5)
Marital status Married 12 (2.7) 30 (6.8) 0.546 36 (8.1) 6 (1.2) 0.397 13 (2.9) 29 (6.6) 0.708 30 (6.8) 12 (2.7) 0.130
Widowed 4 (0.9) 10 (2.26) 13 (2.9) 1 (0.2) 3 (0.7) 11 (2.5) 14 (3.2) 0 (0)
Single – never married 130 (29.4) 234 (52.9) 305 (69.0) 59 (13.3) 96 (21.7) 268 (60.6) 294 (66.5) 70 (15.8)
Divorced 10 (2.3) 12 (2.7) 21 (4.8) 1 (0.2) 4 (0.9) 18 (4.1) 18 (4.1) 4 (0.9)
Formal education level None 24 (5.4) 41 (9.3) 0.149 54 (12.2) 11 (2.5) 0.009 20 (4.5) 45 (10.2) 0.838 55 (12.4) 11 (2.5) 0.826
Primary 32 (7.2) 71 (16.1) 96 (21.7) 7 (1.6) 27 (6.1) 76 (17.2) 82 (18.6) 21 (4.8)
Secondary 98 (22.2) 160 (36.2) 209 (47.3) 49 (11.1) 65 (14.7) 193 (43.7) 206 (46.6) 52 (11.8)
Post-secondary 2 (0.5) 14 (3.2) 16 (3.6) 0 (0) 4 (0.9) 12 (2.7) 14 (3.2) 2 (0.5)
Main source of family Income Grant 136 (30.8) 242 (54.8) 0.731 322 (72.9) 56 (12.7) 0.632 92 (20.8) 286 (64.7) 0.070 306 (69.2) 72 (16.3) 0.357
Vending 17 (3.8) 36 (8.1) 43 (9.7) 10 (2.26) 19 (4.2) 34 (7.7) 43 (9.7) 10 (2.3)
Wage/salary 3 (0.7) 8 (1.8) 10 (2.26) 1 (0.2) 5 (1.1) 6 (1.4) 7 (1.6) 14 (3.2)
Source of Information None 21 (4.8) 65 (14.7) 0.003 81 (18.3) 5 (1.1) 0.002 19 (4.2) 38 (8.6) 0.472 56 (12.7) 1 (0.2) 0.013
Community meetings 21 (4.8) 46 (10.4) 55 (12.4) 12 (2.7) 20 (4.5) 71 (16.1) 34 (7.7) 12 (2.7)
Research organizations 14 (3.2) 47 (10.6) 47 (10.6) 14 (3.17) 20 (4.5) 51 (11.5) 57 (12.9) 14 ()
Clinic/hospital 10 (2.3) 18 (4.1) 18 (4.1) 10 (2.26) 8 (1.8) 38 (8.6) 69 (15.6) 22 ()
Media (Radio/TV) 14 (3.2) 13 (2.9) 23 (5.2) 4 (0.9) 15 (3.4) 41 (9.3) 43 (9.7) 13 ()
Relatives and friends 76 (17.2) 97 (21.9) 151 (34.2) 22 (5.0) 34 (7.7) 87 (19.7) 97 (21.9) 24 ()