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Table 1 Reported cases of rabies with abnormal sexual behaviors as the presenting manifestations

From: Clinical features of rabies patients with abnormal sexual behaviors as the presenting manifestations: a case report and literature review

Authors (Reference) Published year Country Case (sex, age) Sexual manifestation Duration of the manifestation Diagnosis methods
Gardner [42] 1970 Burma 1 (M, NR) Desperate increase in libido NR Negri bodies were indeed seen on section of this patient’s hippocampus
Talaulicar [44] 1977 India 1 (M, 25Y) Persistent priapism# 1.5D Medical history, clinical manifestation, dog was proved rabid.
Bhandari & Kumar [7] 1986 India 1 (M, 56Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 10 times a day, penile hyperexcitability# 2D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Jiang, et al [11] 1986 China 1 (M, 41Y) Urgent urination, urinary endless and spermatorrhea# 4D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Wang, et al [23] 1987 China 1 (M, 40Y) Priapism, spermiation# 15D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Madhusudana et al [43] 1988 India 1 (M, 34Y) Increased libido, frequent erection and ejaculation > 10 times a day# NR Medical history and clinical manifestation, corneal smears were positive for rabies antigen by fluorescent antibody technique
Udwadia et al [8] 1988 India 1 (M, 47Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 10 times a day# 2D Medical history, clinical manifestation, Negri bodies in brain tissue by autopsy, and positive result of Swiss albino mouse inoculation test
Wang, et al [38] 1989 China 2 (2 M, 32Y & 44Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 10 times a day# 5D & 6D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Lin, et al [20] 1989 China 1 (M, 52Y) Spermatorrhea > 10 times, painful penis# 3D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Liu, et al [12] 1990 China 1 (M, 65Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 50 times a day# 4D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Xiao, et al [15] 1990 China 1 (M. 41Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 50 times a day# 4D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Luo, et al [35] 1990 China 1 (M, 35Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 10 times a day# 4D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Zhang, et al [37] 1990 China 1 (M, 35Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 20 times a day# 5D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Yang, et al [25] 1990 China 1 (M, 33Y) Frequent spermatorrhea 3D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Ma, et al [17] 1991 China 1 (M, 35Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 20 times a day 2D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Fu, et al [19] 1991 China 1 (M, 28Y) Priapism > 50 times a day 3D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Zhan, et al [32] 1991 China 1 (M, 30Y) Priapism and spermatorrhea 5–10 times# 4D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Chou et al [31] 1991 China 1 (M, 46Y) Frequent spermatorrhea# 11D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Ge, et al [16] 1992 China 2 (2 M, 40Y & 56Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 10 times a day# 4D & 6D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Xiao, et al [27] 1992 China 1 (M, 62Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 10 times a day# 8D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Wei, et al [30] 1992 China 1 (M, 61Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 50 times a day# 4D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Niu, et al [14] 1993 China 1 (M, 68Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 20 times a day# 4D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Feng, et al [21] 1994 China 1 (F, 45Y) Feeling of ants climb in vagina# 2D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Geng, et al [36] 1994 China 1 (M, 59Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 10 times a day# 7D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Li, et al [45] 1994 China 1 (M, 52Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation < 10 times a day# 7D Medical history and clinical manifestation
He, et al [34] 1994 China 1 (M, 65Y) Pain of penis# 6D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Li, et al [26] 1994 China 1 (M, 32Y) Priapism and ejaculation > 10 times# 3D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Tang, et al [24] 1994 China 1 (M, 27Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 10 times a day 5D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Zhang, et al [13] 1995 China 1 (M, 34Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 10 times a day# 5D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Dutta [5] 1996 India 1 (F, 28Y) Hypersexuality# 10D Medical history, clinical manifestation and Negri bodies in brain tissue by autopsy
Cai, et al [29] 1997 China 2 (2 M, 29Y & 31Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 50 times a day# 8D & 6D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Yang, et al [18] 1998 China 1 (M, 40 + Y) Priapism 1D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Du, et al [22] 1999 China 1 (M, 26Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 20 times a day# 10D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Wu, et al [28] 2000 China 5 (5 M, 18-52Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 10 times a day# 5-7D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Zhong, et al [33] 2000 China 1 (M, 54Y) Frequent erection and Ejaculation > 11 times a day# 7D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Li, et al [40] 2000 China 1 (M, 39Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 30 times a day# 4D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Ou, et al [46] 2005 China 1 (M, 35Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 10 times a day# 6D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Daher, et al [41] 2005 Brazil 1 (NR, NR) Priapism NR Clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and postmortem findings
Tan, et al [10] 2007 China 1 (M, 71Y) Severe pain of scrotum and testicles# 6D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Li, et al [39] 2011 China 1 (M, 43Y) Priapism and ejaculation < 10 times a day# 2D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Liu, et al [47] 2011 China 1 (M, 8Y) Priapism and ejaculation 0 times# 6D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Senthilkumaran et al [6] 2011 India 1 (F, 28Y) Hypersexuality, frequent intercourse and frequent orgasm# 6D Medical history, clinical manifestation, imaging, CSF PCR and skin biopsy
Depani & Molyneux [4] 2012 Malawi 1 (M, 6Y) Priapism with pain# 1D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Qin, et al [48] 2012 China 1 (M, 52Y) Priapism and ejaculation < 10 times a day# 3D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Lei, et al [9] 2012 China 1 (M, 53Y) Priapism 2D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Liu, et al [49] 2013 China 1 (M, 48Y) Priapism 2D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Gao, et al [50] 2014 China 1 (M, 66Y) Priapism and ejaculation > 5 times a day# 8D Medical history and clinical manifestation
Yan, et al. Submitted China 1 (M, 32Y) Frequent erection and ejaculation > 40 times a day# 6D Medical history and clinical manifestation
  1. NR Not reported, M Male, F Female, Y Years, D Days
  2. # Abnormal sexual behaviors as the initial manifestations