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Table 4 Relative and additive effect modification of diabetes on active tuberculosis prevalence by body mass indexa

From: Interaction of nutritional status and diabetes on active and latent tuberculosis: a cross-sectional analysis

  BMI Category (kg/m2)
< 18.5 18.5–22.9 ≥23.0
TB cases/total % aPR (95% CI) aPD (95% CI) TB cases/ total % aPR (95% CI) aPD (95% CI) TB cases/ total % aPR (95% CI) aPD (95% CI)
No history of diabetes 484/664 72.9 2.44 (2.09, 2.85) 0.40 (0.34, 0.45) 121/496 24.4 1.00 (Referent) 0.00 (Referent) 18/507 3.6 0.17 (0.11, 0.27) −0.16 (−0.20, −0.13)
Prior diabetes diagnosis 80/82 97.6 2.38 (1.98, 2.86) 0.61 (0.53, 0.68) 145/157 92.4 2.45 (2.05, 2.92) 0.56 (0.49, 0.63) 71/126 56.4 1.73 (1.38, 2.17) 0.24 (0.15, 0.34)
Effect of diabetes within BMI strata    1.04 (0.93, 1.16) 0.17 (0.12, 0.23)    2.45 (2.05, 2.92) 0.56 (0.49, 0.63)    12.01 (6.98, 20.71) 0.50 (0.41, 0.59)
  1. aPD adjusted prevalence difference, aPR adjusted prevalence ratio, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, TB tuberculosis
  2. P for interaction additive and relative scales < 0.0001
  3. a Adjusted for age and sex, and accounting for clustering at the family-level with an exchangeable correlation matrix