Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the studies included in the systematic review and meta-analysis

From: Associations between human leukocyte antigen polymorphisms and hypersensitivity to antiretroviral therapy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus: a meta-analysis

Study Study design Publication year Country Ethnicity Definition of hypersensitivity Cases Control Typing method Mean age (years) Men/women Intervention NOS score
Littera [19] Cohort 2006 Italy Sardinian extensive skin rash, vesicular, bullous or scaling skin lesions or skin manifestations combined with one or more of the following symptoms: fever (> 38oC),myalgia, arthralgia, visceral impairment, liver toxicity. 13 36 PCR-SSP 38.0 30/19 Nevirapine 7
Chantarangsu [20] Case control 2009 Thailand Thai skin-rash (The skin reactions range from mild localized maculopapular rash, with increasing severity, to diffuse maculopapular rashes, and generalized bullous lesions. Severe fatal reactions, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis were also observed) 147 185 SBT 35.9 157/175 Nevirapine 8
Gao [21] Cohort 2012 China Chinese extensive skin rash,vesicular, bullous skin lesions, or skin manifestations combined with one or more of the following symptoms: fever (> 38 °C) or liver toxicity. 32 71 PCR-SSP 40.3 41/62 Nevirapine 8
Munderi [22] Cohort 2011 Uganda Kampala fever, rash, gastrointestinal and / or constitutional symptoms and less frequently, respiratory symptoms, lethargy or malaise and usually appearing within 6 weeks of initiating abacavir (median onset 11 days) 6 241 high-resolution DNA- based assay methods NA NA Abacavir 6
Mallal [23] Cohort 2008 19 countries mixed fever, rash, constitutional symptoms, gastrointestinal tract symptoms, and respiratory symptoms that become more severe with continued dosing 66 781 DNA-sequence–based typing 42.0 602/245 Abacavir 8
Yuan [24] Case control 2011 USA mixed Severe cutaneous toxicity [grade III or IV categorized by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Division of AIDS criteria]; symptomatic grade ≥ 3 hepatic transaminase elevation [alanine transaminase or aspartate aminotransferase > 5× upper limit of normal]; or acute hepatic failure 175 587 Illumina BeadArray technology 42.4 459/303 Nevirapine 8
Pavlos [25] Case control 2017 USA USA Severe cutaneous toxicity [grade III or IV categorized by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Division of AIDS criteria]; symptomatic grade ≥ 3 hepatic transaminase elevation [alanine transaminase or aspartate aminotransferase > 5× upper limit of normal]; or acute hepatic failure 151 413 PCR amplified > 18 NA Nevirapine 7
Carr [26] Cohort 2013 Malawi Malawian widespread rash and systemic manifestations such as fever, cough, or abnormal liver function tests 117 155 SBT NA NA Nevirapine 7
Martin [27] Cohort 2005 Australia mixed fever, hepatitis or rash. 14 221 Serological and SBT or PCR-SS NA NA Nevirapine 7
Vitezica [28] Cohort 2008 France White rash. No liver toxicity was boserved. 6 15 PCR-SSP NA NA Nevirapine 6
Umapathy [29] Case control 2011 India Indian fever, hepatitis, skin rash with clinical complications 40 40 serological NA NA Nevirapine 7
Phillips [30] Cohort 2013 South Africa mixed fever, skin rash and/or hepatitis 57 111 SBT 32.0 55/113 Nevirapine 7
Likanonsakul [31] Case control 2009 Thailand Thai rash 39 60 PCR-SSP 38.4 53/46 Nevirapine 7
Keane [32] Cohort 2014 Australia mixed fever, and/or rash and/or hepatitis 19 262 Serological and SBT or PCR-SS 40.3 247/34 Nevirapine 8
Gatanaga [33] Cohort 2007 Japan Japanese extensive skin rash (accompanied by fever > 38 °C in three) and one patient with chronic hepatitis C who developed nevirapine-induced hepatotoxicity with aspartate aminotransferase/ alanine aminotransferase values three times above the baseline 12 29 PCR-SSP NA NA Nevirapine 6
Gozalo [34] Cohort 2011 France mixed either grade 3 or 4 cutaneous toxicity or alanine aminotransferase elevation greater than three times the upper limit of normal and without other causes being identified. 12 60 PCR-SSO 36.0 53/19 Nevirapine 7
Manglani [35] Cohort 2018 India Indian fever, rash, nausea and vomiting 11 89 PCR-SSP 11.0 61/39 Abacavir 7