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Table 1 Demographical and clinical data of adult patients with community-acquired sepsis by severity group

From: Clinical and microbiological characteristics and outcomes of community-acquired sepsis among adults: a single center, 1-year retrospective observational cohort study from Hungary

ParametersaTotal (n = 214)Sepsis (n = 83)Severe sepsis (n = 70)Septic shock (n = 61)p value
Age (years, median ± IQR, min–max)60.0 ± 33.1 (18–93)58.5 ± 26.5 (20–92)61.3 ± 36.5 (18–95)62.0 ± 26.5 (25–90)0.58
Male gender92 (43.0)31 (37.3)34 (48.6)27 (44.3)0.36
Comorbidities:
- Arterial hypertension132 (61.7)51 (61.4)44 (62.9)37 (60.7)0.96
- Chronic heart disease94 (43.9)30 (36.1)34 (48.6)30 (49.2)0.18
- Chronic lung disease34 (15.9)11 (13.3)12 (17.1)11 (18.0)0.69
- Chronic kidney disease50 (23.4)15 (18.1)21 (30.0)14 (23.0)0.22
- Chronic liver disease55 (25.7)13 (15.7)21 (30.0)21 (34.4)0.02*
- Diabetes mellitus61 (28.5)24 (28.9)24 (34.3)13 (21.3)0.26
- Malignancy22 (10.3)11 (13.3)6 (8.6)5 (8.2)0.52
- Chronic corticosteroid use17 (7.9)2 (2.4)11 (15.7)4 (6.6)0.01**
- Immunosuppression57 (26.6)18 (21.7)24 (34.3)15 (24.6)0.19
- Cerebrovascular disease58 (27.1)22 (26.5)13 (18.6)23 (37.7)0.04***
- Intravenous drug use7 (3.3)2 (2.4)4 (5.7)1 (1.6)0.36
- Excess alcohol use45 (21.0)13 (15.7)13 (18.6)19 (31.1)0.06
No. of comorbidities (per patient, median ± IQR, min–max)3.0 ± 3.0 (0–8)2.0 ± 3.0 (0–7)3.5 ± 4.0 (0–8)3.0 ± 3.0 (0–7)0.07
Charlson score (median ± IQR, min–max)4.0 ± 5.0 (0–12)3.0 ± 5.0 (0–10)4.5 ± 5.0 (0–12)5.0 ± 5.0 (0–10)0.17
Source of sepsis:
Head or neck source29 (13.6)13 (15.7)10 (14.3)6 (9.8)0.58
- Meningitis24 (11.2)10 (12.0)8 (11.4)6 (9.8) 
- Tonsillopharyngitis4 (1.9)3 (3.6)1 (1.4)0 
- Otitis media1 (0.5)01 (1.4)0 
Thoracic source30 (14.0)11 (13.3)10 (14.3)9 (14.8)0.96
- Pneumonia28 (13.1)10 (12.0)9 (12.9)9 (14.8) 
- Endocarditis2 (0.9)1 (1.2)1 (1.4)0 
Abdominal source52 (24.3)13 (15.7)16 (22.9)23 (37.7)0.01*
- Peritonitis12 (5.6)2 (2.4)1 (1.4)9 (14.8) 
- Cholangitis19 (8.9)5 (6.0)8 (11.4)6 (9.8) 
- Colonic perforation2 (0.9)002 (3.3) 
- Oesophagitis1 (0.5)1 (1.2)00 
- Enterocolitis18 (8.4)5 (6.0)7 (10.0)6 (9.8) 
Skin and soft tissue source20 (9.3)8 (9.6)5 (7.1)7 (11.5)0.69
- Cellulitis17 (7.9)6 (7.2)4 (5.7)7 (11.5) 
- Diabetic foot infection3 (1.4)2 (2.4)1 (1.4)0 
Urogenital source53 (24.8)26 (31.3)18 (25.7)9 (14.8)0.07
- Urinary tract infection50 (23.4)23 (27.7)18 (25.7)9 (14.8) 
- Pelvic inflammatory disease3 (1.4)3 (3.6)00 
Toxic shock syndrome6 (2.8)02 (2.9)4 (6.6)0.06
Unknown source24 (11.2)12 (14.5)9 (12.9)3 (4.9)0.17
Signs of sepsis:
- Fever192 (89.7)74 (89.2)66 (94.3)52 (85.2)0.23
- Hypothermia2 (0.9)02 (2.9)0n.a.
- Euthermia21 (9.8)9 (10.8)3 (4.3)9 (14.8)0.12
- Hypotension135 (63.1)27 (32.5)47 (67.1)61 (100.0)< 0.01*,**,***
- Tachycardia135 (63.1)33 (39.8)46 (65.7)56 (91.8)< 0.01*,**,***
- Tachypnea90 (42.1)16 (19.3)36 (51.4)38 (62.3)< 0.01*,**
- Oliguria69 (32.2)6 (7.2)22 (31.4)41 (67.2)< 0.01*,**,***
- Altered mental status84 (39.3)16 (19.3)25 (35.7)43 (70.5)< 0.01*,***
- Acute abdomen26 (12.1)7 (8.4)8 (11.4)11 (18.0)0.18
- Bleeding18 (8.4)3 (3.6)3 (4.3)12 (19.7)0.01*,***
- Skin lesion56 (26.2)16 (19.3)16 (22.9)24 (39.3)0.02*
- Peripheral oedema41 (19.2)10 (12.0)13 (18.6)18 (29.5)0.03*
- Splenomegaly50 (23.4)16 (19.3)17 (24.3)17 (27.9)0.47
  1. a All parameters were documented at diagnosis of sepsis, and data are reported in absolute numbers and relative percentages (n, %), unless otherwise specified
  2. n.a. Not applicable.
  3. * p < 0.05 for comparison between the groups sepsis and septic shock
  4. ** p < 0.05 for comparison between the groups sepsis and severe sepsis
  5. *** p < 0.05 for comparison between the groups severe sepsis and septic shock