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Table 1 Demographics and prevalence of norovirus infection for symptomatic and asymptomatic employees during outbreaks in Shanghai, from 2015 to 2017

From: Norovirus shedding among symptomatic and asymptomatic employees in outbreak settings in Shanghai, China

Characteristics Employees
n = 421
Asympa n = 377 Asymp+ (%)b
n = 64 (17.0)
Symptc n = 44 Sympt+ (%)d
n = 31 (70.5)
P Value
Age (mean ± SD) 38.8 ± 8.5 39.0 ± 7.9 39.0 ± 7.3 37.2 ± 12.3 37.4 ± 12.3 0.18
Gender
 Male 277 249 35 (14.1) 28 19 (67.9) < 0.01
 Female 144 128 29 (22.7) 16 12 (75.0) < 0.01
Occupation
 Food handler 236 226 45 (19.9) 10 7 (70.0) < 0.01
 Cleaning staff 73 69 9 (13.0) 4 4 (100.0) < 0.01
 Teacher 67 51 3 (5.9) 16 8 (50.0) < 0.01
 Medical staff 13 10 7 (70.0) 3 2 (66.7) 1.00
 Others 32 21 0 (0.0) 11 10 (90.9) < 0.01
Type of settings
 Kindergartens 138 126 12 (9.5) 12 10 (83.3) < 0.01
 Schools 77 68 3 (4.4) 9 2 (22.2) 0.04
 Hospitals 7 4 1 (25.0) 3 3 (100.0) 0.14
 Nursing home 9 8 7 (87.5) 1 0 (0.0) 0.22
 Hotel 190 171 41 (24.0) 19 16 (84.2) < 0.01
Symptoms
 Average diarrhea episodes on the most severe day (mean ± SD) 33    3.4 ± 2.3 3.3 ± 1.9  
 Average vomiting episodes on the most severe day (mean ± SD) 21 2.6 ± 1.8 2.7 ± 1.9
  1. aasymptomatic employees; bnorovirus-infected asymptomatic employees
  2. csymptomatic employees; dnorovirus-infected symptomatic employees