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Table 6 Hazard ratios (HR) for onsets of influenza and pneumonia during pre-epidemic periods (2013 Oct 1~ Dec 16) in Japanese subjects: time-dependent Cox hazard model

From: Influenza vaccination effectiveness for people aged under 65 years in Japan, 2013/2014 season: application of a doubly robust method to a large-scale, real-world dataset

Outcome definition Age
1–4 years 5–12 years 13–19 years 20–64 years
No. (%)
HR (95% CI)
P value No. (%)
HR (95% CI)
P value No. (%)
HR (95% CI)
P value No. (%)
HR (95% CI)
P value
Influenza diagnosis codes only a 112 (0.235) 0.991 225 (0.239) 0.806 44 (0.088) 0.665 112 (0.063) 0.281
1.003 (0.612–1.644) 0.954 (0.653–1.392) 0.760 (0.219–2.636) 1.389 (0.764–2.524)
ICD10 J101 code
+ Use of rapid testing b
28 (0.059) 0.782 76 (0.081) 0.757 17 (0.034) 0.459 38 (0.021) 0.551
1.143 (0.443–2.948) 0.906 (0.485–1.692) 0.452 (0.055–3.698) 1.349 (0.505–3.602)
Pneumonia c 1094 (2.293) 0.004 579 (0.615) 0.001 84 (0.168) 0.420 425 (0.239) 0.760
1.319 (1.091–1.595) 1.543 (1.182–2.013) 0.551 (0.129–2.348) 0.932 (0.594–1.464)
  1. aDefined by ICD-10 influenza diagnosis codes (J101, J110, J111, J118)
  2. bDefined by combination of ICD-10 influenza diagnosis codes (J101: influenza due to identified seasonal influenza virus) with use of a rapid-testing as outcome
  3. cPneumonia including the ICD-10 codes J12-J18