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Table 4 Aetiology by region (Southeast Asia and South Asia)

From: Diversity of infectious aetiologies of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses in south and Southeast Asia: a systematic review

OrganismSEA (n; %)South Asia (n; %)Total (n; %)
Viral aetiologies7828 (33.0)7060 (12.4)14,888 (18.5)
Dengue2690 (11.4)6821 (12.0)9511 (11.8)
JE***309 (1.3)0 (0.0)309 (0.4)
Influenza**2511 (10.6)3 (0.0)2514 (3.1)
HINI514 (2.2)5 (0.0)519 (0.6)
Chikungunya256 (1.1)199 (0.3)455 (0.6)
Hepatitis A62 (0.3)11 (0.0)73 (0.1)
Hepatitis B267 (1.1)5 (0.0)272 (0.3)
Hepatitis E1038 (4.4)2 (0.0)1040 (1.3)
Flavi virus65 (0.3)0 (0.0)65 (0.1)
Para influenza 110 (0.0)0 (0.0)10 (0.0)
Para influenza 328 (0.1)0 (0.0)28 (0.0)
Hanta virus71 (0.3)2 (0.0)73 (0.1)
HIV7 (0.0)12 (0.0)19 (0.0)
Bacterial aetiologies4873 (20.6)5512 (9.7)10,385 (12.9)
Leptospirosis2861 (12.1)688 (1.2)3549 (4.4)
Typhoid809 (3.4)2449 (4.3)3258 (4.0)
Paratyphoid0 (0.0)57 (0.1)57 (0.1)
Rickettsial diseases1009 (4.3)2234 (3.9)3243 (4.0)
Scrub typhus764 (3.2)2095 (3.7)2859 (3.5)
Murine typhus146 (0.6)126 (0.2)272 (0.3)
Spotted fever99 (0.4)13 (0.0)112 (0.1)
Q fever7 (0.0)0 (0.0)7 (0.0)
E coli49 (0.2)9 (0.0)58 (0.1)
Burkholderia pseudomallei23 (0.1)0 (0.0)23 (0.0)
Tuberculosis21 (0.1)22 (0.0)43 (0.1)
Klebsiella pneumoniae3 (0.0)1 (0.0)4 (0.0)
Haemophilus influenza9 (0.0)0 (0.0)9 (0.0)
Staph aureus49 (0.2)0 (0.0)49 (0.1)
Strep pneumoniae24 (0.1)51 (0.1)75 (0.1)
Strep Gr A2 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (0.0)
Strep Gr C1 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (0.0)
Neisseria meningitides6 (0.0)1 (0.0)7 (0.0)
Protozoa559 (2.4)1722 (3.0)2281 (2.8)
Malaria559 (2.4)1722 (3.0)2281 (2.8)
Fungal aetiologies3 (0.0)0 (0.0)3 (0.0)
Yeast non Cryptococci2 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (0.0)
Cryptococcus neoformans1 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (0.0)
Co infections815 (3.4)196 (0.3)1011 (1.3)
Co infection*592 (2.5)178 (0.3)770 (1.0)
Co infection217 (0.9)18 (0.0)235 (0.3)
Co infection6 (0.0)0 (0.0)6 (0.0)
Unknown9621 (40.6)42,389 (74.5)52,010 (64.5)
Deaths114 (30.2)264 (69.8)378 (100.0)
  1. South Asian countries included: India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal
  2. Southeast Asian (SEA) countries included: Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Philippines, Cambodia and Vietnam ***JE- Japanese B encephalitis;
  3. **influenza other than H1N1; *co-infection with two organisms; co-infection with three organisms; co-infection with more than three organisms
  4. The bold face shows the cumulative number of the stratified groups