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Table 3 Aetiology of AUFI by site of patient recruitment

From: Diversity of infectious aetiologies of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses in south and Southeast Asia: a systematic review

OrganismIP (n; %)OP (n; %)OP+IP (n; %)Total (n; %)
Viral aetiologies2721 (18.8)5536 (36.7)6631 (13.0)14,888 (18.5)
Dengue2377 (16.4)1277 (8.5)5857 (11.5)9511 (11.8)
JE***77 (0.5)7 (0.0)225 (0.4)309 (0.4)
Influenza**86 (0.6)2077 (13.8)351 (0.7)2514 (3.1)
HINI6 (0.0)513 (3.4)0 (0.0)519 (0.6)
Chikungunya54 (0.4)224 (1.5)177 (0.3)455 (0.6)
Hepatitis A0 (0.0)62 (0.4)11 (0.0)73 (0.1)
Hepatitis B4 (0.0)267 (1.8)1 (0.0)272 (0.3)
Hepatitis E2 (0.0)1038 (6.9)0 (0.0)1040 (1.3)
Flavi virus65 (0.4)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)65 (0.1)
Para influenza 110 (0.1)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)10 (0.0)
Para influenza 328 (0.2)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)28 (0.0)
Hanta virus1 (0.0)71 (0.5)1 (0.0)73 (0.1)
HIV11 (0.1)0 (0.0)8 (0.0)19 (0.0)
Bacterial aetiologies3340 (23.1)3383 (22.4)3662 (7.2)10,385 (12.9)
Leptospirosis989 (6.8)2090 (13.9)470 (0.9)3549 (4.4)
Typhoid406 (2.8)912 (6.0)1940 (3.8)3258 (4.0)
Paratyphoid57 (0.4)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)57 (0.1)
Rickettsial diseases1670 (11.6)341 (2.3)1232 (2.4)3243 (4.0)
Scrub typhus1449 (10.0)245 (1.6)1165 (2.3)2859 (3.5)
Murine typhus178 (1.2)65 (0.4)29 (0.1)272 (0.3)
Spotted fever43 (0.3)31 (0.2)38 (0.1)112 (0.1)
Q fever7 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)7 (0.0)
E coli29 (0.2)25 (0.2)4 (0.0)58 (0.1)
Burkholderia pseudomallei17 (0.1)3 (0.0)3 (0.0)23 (0.0)
Tuberculosis36 (0.2)0 (0.0)7 (0.0)43 (0.1)
Klebsiella pneumonia2 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (0.0)4 (0.0)
Haemophilus influenza9 (0.1)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)9 (0.0)
Staph aureus39 (0.3)8 (0.1)2 (0.0)49 (0.1)
Strep pneumonia73 (0.5)2 (0.0)0 (0.0)75 (0.1)
Strep Gr A1 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (0.0)2 (0.0)
Strep Gr C0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (0.0)1 (0.0)
Neisseria meningitis5 (0.0)2 (0.0)0 (0.0)7 (0.0)
Protozoa990 (6.9)57 (0.4)1234 (2.4)2281 (2.8)
Malaria990 (6.9)57 (0.4)1234 (2.4)2281 (2.8)
Fungal aetiologies3 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)3 (0.0)
Yeast non-Cryptococci2 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (0.0)
Cryptococcus neoformans1 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (0.0)
Co infections343 (2.4)176 (1.2)496 (1.0)1015 (1.3)
Co infection*331 (2.3)169 (1.1)270 (0.5)770 (1.0)
Co infection12 (0.1)7 (0.0)220 (0.4)239 (0.3)
Co infection0 (0.0)0 (0.0)6 (0.0)6 (0.0)
Unknown7053 (48.8)5923 (39.3)39,036 (76.5)52,012 (64.5)
Deaths270 (71.4)30 (7.9)78 (20.6)378 (100.0)
  1. IP Inpatients, OP Outpatients; ***JE- Japanese B Encephalitis, HAV Hepatitis A virus; HBV Hepatitis E virus, HEV Hepatitis E virus,
  2. **Influenza other than H1N1; *co-infection with two organisms; co-infection with three organisms; co-infection with more than three organisms
  3. The bold face shows the cumulative number of the stratified groups