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Table 2 Common aetiologies of AUFI stratified by age

From: Diversity of infectious aetiologies of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses in south and Southeast Asia: a systematic review

OrganismAdults (n; %)Children (n; %)UAG (n; %)Total (n; %)
Viral aetiologies2169 (18.6)1625 (23.8)11,094 (17.9)14,888 (18.5)
Dengue1928 (16.6)1281 (18.7)6302 (10.2)9511 (11.8)
JE***5 (0.0)71 (1.0)233 (0.4)309 (0.4)
Influenza**180 (1.5)48 (0.7)2286 (3.7)2514 (3.1)
H1N15 (0.0)1 (0.0)513 (0.8)519 (0.6)
Chikungunya15 (0.1)114 (1.7)326 (0.5)455 (0.6)
Hepatitis A8 (0.1)7 (0.1)58 (0.1)73 (0.1)
Hepatitis B5 (0.0)0 (0.0)267 (0.4)272 (0.3)
Hepatitis E2 (0.0)0 (0.0)1038 (1.7)1040 (1.3)
Flavi virus0 (0.0)65 (1.0)0 (0.0)65 (0.1)
Para influenza 10 (0.0)10 (0.1)0 (0.0)10 (0.0)
Para influenza 30 (0.0)28 (0.4)0 (0.0)28 (0.0)
Hanta virus2 (0.0)0 (0.0)71 (0.1)73 (0.1)
HIV19 (0.2)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)19 (0.0)
Bacterial aetiologies3037 (26.1)435 (6.4)6912 (11.1)10,384 (12.9)
Leptospirosis732 (6.3)88 (1.3)2729 (4.4)3549 (4.4)
Typhoid696 (6.0)107 (1.6)2455 (4.0)3258 (4.0)
Paratyphoid57 (0.5)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)57 (0.1)
Rickettsiosis diseases1449 (12.5)140 (2.0)1654 (2.7)3243 (4.0)
Scrub typhus1244 (10.7)103 (1.5)1512 (2.4)2859 (3.5)
Murine typhus171 (1.5)0 (0.0)101 (0.2)272 (0.3)
Spotted fever34 (0.3)37 (0.5)41 (0.1)112 (0.1)
Q fever7 (0.1)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)7 (0.0)
E coli11 (0.1)21 (0.3)26 (0.0)58 (0.1)
Burkholderia pseudomallei3 (0.0)14 (0.2)6 (0.0)23 (0.0)
Tuberculosis29 (0.2)6 (0.1)8 (0.0)43 (0.1)
Klebsiella pneumoniae1 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (0.0)3 (0.0)
Haemophilus influenza0 (0.0)0 (0.0)9 (0.0)9 (0.0)
Staph aureus0 (0.0)37 (0.5)12 (0.0)49 (0.1)
Strep pneumoniae51 (0.4)18 (0.3)6 (0.0)75 (0.1)
Strep Gr A0 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (0.0)2 (0.0)
Strep Gr C0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (0.0)1 (0.0)
Neisseria meningitis1 (0.0)4 (0.1)2 (0.0)7 (0.0)
Protozoa1139 (9.8)57 (0.8)1085 (1.7)2281 (2.8)
Malaria1139 (9.8)57 (0.8)1085 (1.7)2281 (2.8)
Fungal aetiologies0 (0.0)0 (0.0)3 (0.0)3 (0.0)
Yeast non-Cryptococci0 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (0.0)2 (0.0)
Cryptococcus neoformans0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (0.0)1 (0.0)
Co infections251 (2.2)30 (0.4)700 (1.1)981 (1.2)
Co infection*226 (1.9)30 (0.4)484 (0.8)740 (0.9)
Co infection25 (0.2)0 (0.0)210 (0.3)235 (0.3)
Co infection0 (0.0)0 (0.0)6 (0.0)6 (0.0)
Unknown/others5036 (43.3)4693 (68.6)42,274 (68.1)52,003 (64.6)
Deaths125 (33.1)81 (21.4)172 (45.5)378 (100.0)
  1. UAG Unknown age group, ***JE Japanese B Encephalitis; 39 cases in the manuscript could not be assigned to any age group; **influenza other than H1N1; *co-infection with two organisms; co-infection with three organisms; co-infection with more than three organisms
  2. The bold face shows the cumulative number of the stratified groups