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Table 2 Comparison of patients’ characteristics and parameters of HIV infections, between multi-morbid and non multi-morbid patients. Adjusted odds ratios for risk of multi-morbidity

From: Clusterization of co-morbidities and multi-morbidities among persons living with HIV: a cross-sectional study

  Multi-morbidity N = 612 (56.3%) No multi-morbidity N = 475 (43.7%) aOR 95% CI
Age, years, mean ± SD 51.7 ± 9.1 42.9 ± 10.7 1.08 (1.06–1.09) by 1 year
Women, N (%) 136 (22.2%) 152 (32.0%) 0.81 (0.58–1.15) ref. men
BMI, Kg/m2, mean ± SD 25.2 ± 4.6 24.0 ± 3.2 1.17 (1.07–1.16) by 1 point
Smoking, N (%)
 Never 113 (18.5%) 204 (43.0%) 1
 Current 265 (43.3%) 195 (41.0%) 3.65 (2.54–5.24)
 Former 133 (21.7%) 76 (16.0%) 1.77 (1.14–2.75)
Risk factor for HIV acquisition IVDU 203 (33.2%) 37 (7.8%) 3.19 (2.02–5.04) ref. other risk factors
CDC stage, N (%)
 A 229 (37.4%) 266 (56.0%) 1
 B 177 (28.9%) 117 (24.6%) 1.20 (0.83–1.74)
 C 195 (31.9%) 83 (17.5%) 2.04 (1.38–3.02)
ART duration, years, median (IQR) 12 (6–17) 6 (2–11) 1.08 (1.02–1.13) by 2 years
Current CD4, < 200 cells/mm3, N (%) 42 (6.9%) 23 (4.8%) 1.97 (1.01–3.87) ref. ≥200 cells/mm3
ART naïve, N (%) 14 (2.3%) 29 (6.1%) 1.32 (0.56–3.10) ref. experienced
Nadir CD4, cells/mm3, median (IQR) 170 (70–290) 242 (105–364) 1.00 (0.96–1.05) by 50 cells/ mm3
CD4, cells/mm3, median (IQR) 636 (434–852) 623 (425–780) 1.02 (0.97–1.08) by 100 cells/ mm3
Current PI, N* (%) 272 (44.4%) 169 (35.6%) 1.16 (0.84–1.59) ref. no PI
Current NNRTI, N* (%) 238 (38.9%) 172 (36.2%) 1.07 (0.78–1.47) ref. no NNRTI
Current INSTI, N* (%) 179 (29.2%) 108 (22.7) 1.22 (0.86–1.75) ref. no INSTI
N. of drugs in ART regimen
 0 27 (4.4%) 56 (11.8%) ref.
 1 24 (3.9%) 40 (8.4%) 0.72 (0.28–1.82)
 2 89 (14.5%) 38 (8.0%) 1.72 (0.76–3.93)
 3 447 (73.0%) 323 (68.0%) 1.24 (0.63–2.44)
 >=4 25 (4.1%) 18 (3.8%) 1.33 (0.50–3.53)
    χ2 for trend p = 0.39
Glycemia, mg/dL, mean ± SD 96.3 ± 25.3 88.8 ± 12.0 1.06 (1.01–1.12) by 5 mg/dL
Total cholesterol, mg/dL, mean ± SD 192.2 ± 42.9 178.3 ± 38.2 1.05 (1.03–1.08) by 5 mg/dL
Triglycerides, mg/dL, median (IQR) 146 (98–201) 96 (70–128) 1.08 (1.05–1.10) by 10 mg/dL
  1. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index, IVDU past intravenous drug use, ART antiretroviral treatment; all variables are adjusted (as appropriate) for age (continuous variable), sex, BMI (continuous variable), cigarette smoking, IVDU, CDC stage, ART duration (by 2 years), current CD4 count (< 200 cells/mm3), except for naïve status, that was only adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking habit, current CD4 cells count, and current CD4 count as a continuous variable, that was adjusted for age (continuous variable), sex, BMI (continuous variable), cigarette smoking, IVDU, CDC stage, and ART duration (by 2 years)