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Table 2 Characteristics of inpatients with different subtypes of influenza viruses during the 2011–2017 and 2017–2018 influenza seasons

From: Clinical characteristics and outcomes during a severe influenza season in China during 2017–2018

Variables n (%)BA/H1N1A/H3N2
2011–2017
(n = 44)
2017–2018
(n = 153)
2011–2017
(n = 77)
2017–2018
(n = 110)
2011–2017
(n = 48)
2017–2018
(n = 26)
Gender-male25 (56.8)92 (60.1)45 (58.4)66 (60.0)32 (66.7)11 (42.3)*
Age groups
  < 14 years21 (47.7)23 (15.0)1 (1.3)13 (11.8)0 (0)1 (3.8)
 14–59 years16 (36.4)62 (40.5)47 (61.0)57 (51.8)*18 (37.5)10 (38.5)
  > =60 years7 (15.9)68 (44.4)**29 (37.7)40 (36.4)30 (62.5)15 (57.7)
Co-morbidities
 Cardiovascular diseases7 (15.9)55 (35.9)*50 (64.9)49 (44.5)**21 (43.8)16 (61.5)
 Respiratory diseases2 (4.5)13 (8.5)7 (9.1)10 (9.1)8 (16.7)1 (3.8)
 Chronic renal diseases2 (4.5)12 (7.8)6 (7.8)9 (8.2)3 (4.5)1 (3.8)
 Chronic liver diseases3 (6.8)18 (11.8)4 (5.2)8 (7.3)4 (8.3)1 (3.8)
 Diabetes mellitus1 (2.3)15 (9.8)9 (11.7)12 (10.9)8 (16.7)2 (7.7)
 Cancer and hematological diseases9 (20.5)53 (34.6)27 (35.1)25 (22.7)20 (41.7)5 (19.2)
 Stroke and Neuromuscular diseases2 (4.5)11 (7.2)6 (7.8)4 (3.6)7 (14.6)2 (7.7)
 Immunosuppressant2 (4.5)27 (17.6)*13 (16.9)10 (9.1)4 (8.3)1 (3.8)
 Pregnancy0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)2 (1.8)0 (0)0 (0)
 Postmortum within 30 days after delivery0 (0)1 (0.7)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
 Current smoking3 (6.8)31 (20.3)*13 (16.9)21 (19.1)4 (8.3)5 (19.2)
 Received seasonal or influenza A (H1N1) vaccination0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Symptoms and Lab findings
 Fever (temp > = 38)43 (97.7)136 (88.9)71 (92.2)98 (89.1)45 (93.8)23 (88.5)
 Cough32 (72.7)125 (81.7)70 (90.9)97 (88.2)39 (81.3)25 (96.2)
 Dyspnea3 (6.8)13 (8.5)9 (11.7)31 (28.2)**5 (10.4)6 (23.1)
 Hemoptysis0 (0)6 (3.9)4 (5.2)8 (7.3)1 (2.1)0 (0)
 CNS symptom0 (0)2 (1.3)1 (4.3)8 (7.3)1 (2.1)1 (3.8)
 WBC < 413 (29.5)40 (26.1)26 (33.8)19 (17.3)**11 (22.9)11 (42.3)
 L% < 20%17 (40.5)81 (53.3)49 (63.6)69 (63.3)31 (68.9)12 (46.2)*
 Platelet< 1007 (15.9)35 (22.9)17 (22.1)10 (9.1)*12 (25.0)1 (3.8)
 ALT > 408 (18.2)38 (25.9)18 (23.7)45 (42.5)**10 (20.8)3 (12.0)
 AST > 4021 (48.8)49 (33.1)22 (28.9)54 (51.4)**11 (22.9)6 (25.0)
 LDH > 30021 (55.3)45 (35.7)*19 (33.3)61 (58.7)**8 (20.0)2 (8.7)
 CK > 2005 (13.5)18 (14.4)5 (8.8)30 (28.6)**4 (10.0)6 (26.1)
 CRP > 822 (57.9)96 (70.1)60 (87.0)79 (79.8)39 (84.8)21 (84.8)
 ESR > 2015 (60.0)46 (59.0)34 (69.4)45 (64.3)18 (62.1)7 (46.7)
Treatment on admission
 Antibiotics use39 (88.6)133 (86.9)74 (96.1)101 (91.8)47 (97.9)24 (92.3)
 Mechanical ventilation2 (4.5)7 (4.6)15 (19.5)22 (20.0)4 (8.3)4 (15.4)
 Oseltamivir27 (61.4)109 (71.2)75 (97.4)88 (80.0)**45 (93.8)25 (96.2)
 Traditional Chinese Medicine6 (13.6)35 (22.9)8 (10.4)28 (25.5)*14 (29.2)1 (3.8)*
 Glucocorticoids9 (20.5)65 (42.5)**35 (45.5)63 (57.3)20 (41.7)6 (23.1)
Outcome
 In-hospital fatality0 (0)11 (7.2)1 (1.3)8 (7.3)1 (2.1)0 (0)
  1. WBC white cell (× 109/L), L lymphocyte percent, PLT platelet (× 109/L), ALT alanine aminotransferase (U/L), AST aspartate aminotransferase (U/L), LDH lactate dehydrogenase (U/L), CK creatine kinase (U/L), CRP C-reactive protein (mg/L), ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mm/h), IQR interquartile range
  2. *, ** Boldface values indicate (*P < .05; **P < .01). Comparison of influenza season 2017–2018 with control group (influenza season 2011–2017) among same type and subtypes of seasonal influenza viruses