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Table 1 Clinical characteristic of influenza associated hospitalizations during the 2017-2018 influenza and 2011-2017 seasons

From: Clinical characteristics and outcomes during a severe influenza season in China during 2017–2018

Variables n (%)2011-2017 (n = 169)2017-2018 (n = 289)P value
Gender-male102 (60.4)169 (58.5)0.693
Age groups
 <14 years22 (13.0)37 (12.8) 
 14- years81 (47.9)129 (44.6)0.751
 >=60 years66 (39.1)123 (42.6) 
Co-morbidities
 Cardiovascular diseases55 (32.5)120 (41.5)0.056
 Respiratory diseases17 (5.9)24 (8.3)0.526
 Chronic renal diseases11 (6.5)22 (7.6)0.659
 Chronic liver diseases11 (6.5)27 (9.3)0.289
 Diabetes mellitus18 (10.7)29 (10.0)0.834
 Cancer and hematological diseases56 (33.1)83 (28.7)0.321
 Stroke and Neuromuscular diseases15 (8.9)17 (5.9)0.225
 Immunosuppressant19 (11.2)38 (13.1)0.551
Pregnancy0 (0)2 (0.7)0.533
Postmortum within 30 days after delivery0 (0)1 (0.3)1.000
Current smoking20 (6.9)57 (19.7)*0.029
Received seasonal or influenza A (H1N1) vaccination0 (0)0 (0.0)NA
Symptoms and Lab findings
 Fever (temp >=38)159 (94.1)257 (88.9)0.065
 Cough141 (83.4)247 (85.5)0.559
 Dyspnea17 (5.9)50 (17.3)*0.034
 Hemoptysis5 (3.0)14 (4.8)0.329
 CNS symptom2 (1.2)11 (3.8)0.180
 WBC<450 (29.6)70 (24.2)0.266
 L%<20%97 (59.1)162 (56.1)0.192
 Platelet<10036 (65.0)46 (15.9)0.286
 ALT >4036 (21.4)86 (30.9)*0.029
 AST >4054 (32.3)109 (39.4)0.137
 LDH >30048 (35.6)108 (42.7)0.172
 CK>20014 (10.4)54 (21.3)**0.007
 CRP>8121 (79.1)196 (75.1)0.355
 ESR >2067 (39.6)98 (60.1)0.420
Treatment on admission
 Antibiotics use160 (94.7)258 (89.3)*0.048
21 (12.4)33 (11.4)0.747
 Oseltamivir147 (87.0)222 (76.8)**0.008
 Traditional Chinese Medicine28 (16.6)64 (22.1)0.151
 Glucocorticoids64 (37.9)134 (46.4)0.077
Outcome
 Total In-hospital fatality2 (1.2)19 (6.6)**0.008
  1. *, **. Boldface values indicate (*P <.05; **P <.01). Comparison of the 2017-2018 influenza season with control group (influenza season 2011-2017). WBC, white cell (×109/L); L%, lymphocyte percent; PLT, platelet (×109/L); ALT alanine aminotransferase (U/L), AST aspartate aminotransferase (U/L), LDH lactate dehydrogenase (U/L), CK creatine kinase (U/L), CRP C-reactive protein (mg/L), ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mm/h). IQR interquartile range, NA not available