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Table 2 Risk factors for ART failure in adult HIV-positive patients, Southeast Ethiopia, 2015–2017

From: Factors associated with first-line antiretroviral treatment failure in adult HIV-positive patients: a case-control study from Ethiopia

Variables Bivariate analysis Multivariate analysis
COR 95% CI P-value AOR 95% CI P-value
Illiterate 0.9 0.4–1.8 0.714    
Small family ≤5 1.5 0.8–2.8 0.245    
Residence in rural area 1.6 0.9–2.9 0.092 1.4 0.6–2.9 0.396
Unemployed 4.1 0.7–23 0.105 1.5 0.1–27.2 0.775
Unmarried 1.5 0.9–2.6 0.100 1.4 0.7–2.7 0.379
Alcohol 3.1 0.4–25.9 0.303    
smoking cigarette 2.0 0.4–10.3 0.390    
Khat** chewing 1.3 0.4–4.9 0.650    
Main diet wheat or barley vs other food 1.8 0.9–3.5 0.093 2.3 0.9–5.4 0.064
Main diet teff vs wheat or barley 0.6 0.3–1.2 0.147    
Baseline CD4 lymphocyte count ≤50 cells/mm3 3.7 1.7–7.8 < 0.001 3.8 1.5–9.6 0.005
Baseline WHO stage 4 3.9 1.3–12.0 0.018 0.3 0.1–1.4 0.138
Discontinuation of ART 7.4 3.9–13.8 < 0.001 9.8 4.0–23.8 < 0.001
<  1 month 8.5 3.7–19.6 < 0.001    
>  1 month 6.3 2.8–14.5 < 0.001    
AZT based regimen 1.5 0.9–2.5 0.121 1.3 0.7–2.6 0.392
Missed ART follow-up 2.6 1.3–5.1 0.007 1.6 0.6–4.8 0.362
Repeated or persistent diarrhea 4.6 1.9–11.3 < 0.001 4.4 1.5–13.2 0.007
Dyspepsia 1.3 0.8–2.3 0.305    
Psychiatric illness 3.1 0.9–11.4 0.082 0.6 0.3–1.5 0.272
Anti-HCV positive 2.0 0.2–18.4 0.531    
HBsAg positive 1.5 0.04–5.8 0.534    
H. pylori antigen positive 0.7 0.4–1.3 0.314    
VDRL positive 0.5 0.3_1.1 0.074 0.6 0.3–1.5 0.272
  1. Note: ART: Antiretroviral Therapy; AZT: Azidothymidine (Zidovudine); CI: Confidence interval; COR: Crude odds ratio; HCV: Hepatitis C virus; H. pylori: Helicobacter pylori; HBsAg: Hepatitis B surface antigen; VDRL: Venereal disease research laboratory; WHO: World Health Organization. *Teff (Eragrostis tef) is a gluten-free cereal traditionally grown in Ethiopia [25]. ** Khat (Catha edulis) is a plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula and contains psychoactive substances that have a high abuse potential [26]