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Table 2 Performance of diagnostics for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis in pleural effusion samples

From: An improved algorithm for rapid diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis from pleural effusion by combined testing with GeneXpert MTB/RIF and an anti-LAM antibody-based assay

Method Sensitivity
95% CI
Specificity
95% CI
PPVa
95% CI
NPV
95% CI
Culture 8.4% (13/155) 100.0% (64/64) 100.0% (13/13) 31.1% (64/206)
(4.0–12.8%) (92.9–100.0%) (100.0–100.0%) (24.7–37.4%)
GeneXpert 14.2% (22/155) 100.0% (64/64) 100.0% (22/22) 32.5% (64/197)
(8.7–19.7%) (92.9–100.0%) (100.0–100.0%) (25.9–39.0%)
LAM 35.5% (55/155) 96.9% (62/64) 96.5% (55/57) 38.3% (62/162)
  (28.1–43.6%) (88.2–99.5%) (91.7–100.0%) (30.8–45.8%)
Culture+GeneXpert 14.8% (23/155) 100.0% (64/64) 100.0% (23/23) 32.7% (64/196)
(9.2–20.4%) (92.9–100.0%) (100.0–100.0%) (26.1–39.2%)
Culture+LAM 38.7% (60/155) 96.9% (62/64) 96.8% (60/62) 39.5% (62/157)
(31.0–46.4%) (88.2–99.5%) (92.4–100.0%) (31.8–47.1%)
GeneXpert+LAM 40.0% (62/155) 96.9% (62/64) 96.9% (62/64) 40.0% (62/155)
(32.3–47.7%) (88.2–99.5%) (92.6–100.0%) (32.3–47.7%)
Culture+GeneXpert+LAM 40.6% (63/155) 96.9% (62/64) 96.9% (63/65) 40.3% (62/154)
(32.9–48.4%) (88.2–99.5%) (92.7–100.0%) (32.5–48.0%)
  1. aPPV positive predictive value, NPV negative predictive value
  2. bχ2 = 33.23, P < 0.01(Culture Se. vs. LAM Se.); χ2 = 18.82, P < 0.01(GeneXpert Se.vs. LAM Se.); χ2 = 2.61, P = 0.11(Culture Se.vs. GeneXpert Se.); χ2 = 39.58, P < 0.01(Culture Se. vs. Culture+LAM Se.); χ2 = 26.13, P < 0.01(GeneXpert Se.vs. GeneXpert+LAM Se.); χ2 = 3.14, P = 0.08(Culture Se.vs. Culture+GeneXpert Se)