Skip to main content

Table 6 Summary of results from six febrile illness studies from India, 2007–2017

From: Dengue, chikungunya, and scrub typhus are important etiologies of non-malarial febrile illness in Rourkela, Odisha, India

Study Location and year Population and sample size Select tests and results Results (n, %)
Chrispal 2010 Christian medical college, Vellore; 2007 ≥16 years, febrile for 5–21 days,
N = 398
in-patients
1) Thin blood smear for malaria
2) Dengue IgM-IgG ELISA
3) Scrub typhus IgM ELISA
4) Blood culture or Typhidot for Salmonella
5) Leptospirosis IgM ELISA
6) Spotted fever IgM ELISA
7) Hantavirus IgM and IgG
Malaria (68, 17.1%)
Dengue (28, 7.0%)
Scrub typhus (189, 47.5%)
Enteric fever (32, 8.0%)
Leptospirosis (12, 3.0%)
Spotted fever (7, 1.8%)
Hantavirus (1, 0.3%)
Mittal 2015 Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun,
Dec 2012- Nov 2013
>  18 years, febrile for 5–14 days,
N = 2547
in-patients
1) Malaria microscopy, RDT
2) Scrub typhus IgM ELISA
3) Dengue NS1/ IgM RDT
4) Leptospira IgM RDT
5) Widal Ag kit for Salmonella
6) Anti HEV IgM EIA
7) Anti HAV IgM EIA
Malaria (175, 6.8%);
Scrub typhus (367, 14.4%);
Dengue (956, 37.5%);
Leptospirosis (0.14%);
Enteric fever (424, 16.5%);
Hepatitis A (1.9%);
Hepatitis E (1.4%);
Undetermined 11%.
Mixed infections (48, 1.9%)
Abhilash 2016 Christian medical college, Vellore; Oct 2012- Sep 2013 ≥16 years, febrile for 3–14 days,
N = 1258
Both in-patients and out-patients
1) Thin blood smear for malaria
2) Dengue IgM-IgG ELISA
3) Scrub typhus IgM ELISA
4) Blood culture for Salmonella, Widal
5) Leptospirosis IgM ELISA
Malaria (131, 10.4%)
Dengue (386, 30.6%)
Scrub typhus (452, 35.9%)
Enteric fever (47, 3.7%)
Leptospirosis (8, 0.6%)
Undetermined (220, 17.4%)
Morch 2017 7 hospitals in India,
April 2011- Nov 2012
≥5 years,
N = 1564,
in-patients
1) Malaria PCR, RDT, microscopy
2) Dengue RDT, IgM ELISA
3) chikungunya IgM ELISA
4) Leptospirosis IgM ELISA
5) Scrub typhus IgM ELISA
6) Blood culture for bacterial infections
Malaria (268, 17%)
Dengue (244, 16%)
chikungunya (98, 6%)
Leptospirosis (116, 7%)
Scrub typhus (159, 10%)
Bacteremia (124, 8%)
Robinson 2018 BJ Medical College, Pune; 2013–2015 > 6 months, fever or complaint of fever,
N = 1725
in-patients
1) Malaria RDT, microscopy
2) Dengue NS1 ELISA, IgM
3) chikungunya IgM RDT
4) Influenza RDT
5) Leptospirosis IgM
Malaria (102, 6%)
Dengue (252, 15%)
chikungunya (35, 2%)
Influenza (13, 0.8%)
Leptospirosis (18, 1%)
Mixed mosquito borne infections (23, 1%)
Undetermined (965, 56%)
MCVR report 2017 27 hospital-based sentinel sites, June 2014–July 2017 N = 27,586
in-patients
1) PCR for Influenza
2) Dengue IgM, IgG ELISA, PCR
3) Scrub typhus IgM ELISA and PCR
4) Leptospirosis IgM ELISA, PCR, MAT
5) Malaria RDT, PCR
6) chikungunya IgM ELISA, PCR
Influenza (4118, 15%)
Dengue (1898, 7%)
Scrub typhus (1177, 4%)
Leptospirosis (1107, 4%)
Malaria (953, 3%)
chikungunya (371, 1%)