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Table 1 Review of 26 previously published primary infective endocarditis cases caused by Actinomyces species

From: Actinomyces neuii: a case report of a rare cause of acute infective endocarditis and literature review

Author Year Sex Age Duration of symptoms Valve(s) Predisposing factor(s) Organism Diagnosis Therapy Complication Outcome
Uhr [5] 1939 M 24 1 month MV, AV None Actinomyces bovis Autopsy Sodium iodide Septic emboli (lungs, small intestine, kidneys) Died
Beamer [6] 1945 M 55 9 months MV, AV Dental caries Actinomyces graminis Autopsy None Septic emboli (spleen, kidneys, brain) Died
Mac Neal [7] 1946 M 39 6 weeks MV Heart murmur Actinomyces septicus Clinical PCN Septic emboli (skin, mucosa, brain) Survived
Wedding [8] 1947 M 37 NA MV Rheumatic heart Actinomyces spp. Clinical Sulfathiazole Septic emboli (spleen, ileum, kidneys, mucosa, brain) Died
Wedding [8] 1947 F 71 NA AV Rheumatic heart Actinomyces spp. Autopsy None NA Died
Walters [9] 1962 F 43 2 months MV Rheumatic heart. Dental caries Actinomyces bovis Clinical PCN Septic embolic (mesentery, skin) Survived
Dutton [10] 1968 M 6 NA MV Rheumatic heart Actinomyces israelii Autopsy PCN CHF. Arrhythmia Died
Gutschik [11] 1976 M 70 5 months Left side Dental abscess Actinomyces viscosus Clinical PCN Aphasia. Diplopia. CHF Survived
Lam [12] 1993 M 65 4 weeks MV, AV Rheumatic heart. Endocarditis history Actinomyces israelii Clinical PCN None Survived
Moffatt [13] 1996 M 48 >  2 weeks AV None Actinomyces meyeri Clinical and surgical PCN. Surgery CHF. Aortic root abscess Survived
Hamed [14] 1998 M 81 2–3 weeks AV Poor dental hygiene Actinomyces viscosus Clinical PCN allergy. Ceftizoxime and ceftriaxone None Survived
Huang [15] 1998 F 55 NA MV None Actinomyces meyeri Clinical Ampicillin/sulbactam None Survived
Mardis [16] 2001 M 38 2 weeks MV None Actinomyces viscosus Clinical Vancomycin/gentamicin/cefotaxime ➔ PCN Cutaneous emboli Survived
Westling [17] 2002 F 40 2 weeks TV IVDU. Endocarditis history Actinomyces funkei Clinical Cefuroxime ➔ cefuroxime/ clindamycin/rifampicin ➔ ceftriaxone ➔ clindamycin Pulmonary emboli Survived
Julian [18] 2005 F 43 2 weeks AV Bicuspid AV. Dental cleaning Actinomyces viscosus Clinical Ampicillin/azithromycin ➔ vancomycin/gentamicin/ceftriaxone ➔ surgery ➔ vancomycin/ceftriaxone CHF Survived
Oh [19] 2005 M 33 2 months TV IVDU. Dental procedure Actinomyces odontolytica Clinical PCN/metronidazole Pulmonary emboli Survived
Cohen [4] 2007 M 68 3 weeks AV Bicuspid AV. Dental procedure Actinomyces neuii Clinical Ampicillin/gentamicin/ceftriaxone ➔ ampicillin ➔ ceftriaxone ➔ doxycycline Aortic root abscess Survived
Oddo [20] 2007 M 34 NA MV Rheumatic heart. Endocarditis history Actinomyces spp. Autopsy NA Multi-organ failure Died
Jitmuang [21] 2008 M 46 1 month MV None Actinomyces georgiae Clinical PCN ➔ceftriaxone ➔ ampicillin ➔ amoxicillin CHF Survived
Kennedy [22] 2008 F 27 2 days EV IVDU. Endocarditis history Actinomyces israelii Clinical Surgery. Unclear antibiotic Pulmonary emboli Unclear
Adalja [23] 2010 M 87 2 months MV Dental cleaning Actinomyces israelii Clinical PCN None Survived
Grundmann [24] 2010 M 66 2 months PAV Prosthetics Actinomyces neuii Clinical PCN/meropenem/erythromycin ➔ PCN ➔ amoxicillin. No surgery Aortic root abscess Survived
Mehrzad [25] 2013 M 49 NA TV IVDU Actinomyces spp. Clinical Vancomycin/ceftriaxone,/ciprofloxacin/metronidazole Septic emboli (lungs, skin, spleen). Glomerulonephritis. Survived
Morgan [26] 2014 M 67 6 weeks PAV Prosthetics. Dental cleaning Actinomyces naeslundii Clinical Ceftriaxone Arrhythmia. Septic shock Died
Cortes [27] 2015 F 51 2 months PAV Prosthetics. Dental implant Actinomyces naeslundii Clinical Ceftriaxone ➔ ertapenem ➔ amoxicillin Roth spots. Survived
Toom [28] 2018 F 55 8 months MV, AV HOCM with LVOT obstruction Actinomyces israelii Clinical PCN Severe hemolytic anemia Survived
  1. M male, F female, MV mitral valve, AV aortic valve, TV tricuspid valve, EV Eustachian valve, an embryologic remnant of the valve of the inferior vena cava, PAV prosthetic aortic valve, NA not available, PCN penicillin, CHF congestive heart failure, IVDU intravenous drug use, HOCM hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, LVOT left ventricular outflow tract