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Table 1 Surveillance results of environmental AIVs in Fujian Province, during 2013–2017

From: A study of the relationship between human infection with avian influenza a (H5N6) and environmental avian influenza viruses in Fujian, China

   Influenza A virus H5 subtype
Number of samples Number of positive (%) P-value χ 2 Number of positive (%) P-value χ 2
Surveillance city Fuzhou 819 157 (19.17) <0.001 540.835 7 (0.85) <0.001 101.033
Xiamen 1060 594 (56.04) 63 (5.94)
Quanzhou 1234 369 (29.90) 51 (4.13)
Zhangzhou 589 33 (5.60) 1 (0.17)
Sanming 600 219 (36.50) 59 (9.83)
Nanping 601 193 (32.11) 27 (4.49)
Sample site LPMs 3785 1500 (39.63) <0.001*   199 (5.26) <0.001*  
Poultry farms 275 1 (0.36) 0 (0.00)
Poultry households 701 48 (6.85) 4 (0.57)
Poultry slaughter factories 133 16 (12.03) 5 (3.76)
Others 9 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)
Sample Fresh fecal 1696 477 (28.13) <0.001*   55 (3.24) <0.001*  
Cage surface 1245 401 (32.21) 35 (2.81)
Poultry drinking water 788 252 (31.98) 39 (4.95)
Cleaning poultry sewage 635 249 (39.21) 38 (5.98)
Poultry chopping board surface 535 184 (34.39) 41 (7.66)
Others 4 2 (50.00) 0 (0.00)
Season Spring 1448 555 (38.33) <0.001 90.916 78 (5.39) <0.001 48.174
Summer 1060 284 (26.79) 20 (1.89)
Autumn 975 218 (22.36) 19 (1.95)
Winter 1420 508 (35.77) 91 (6.41)
  Total 4903 1565 (31.92)    208 (4.24)   
  1. *P value counted by Fisher’s exact probability