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Table 3 Heterogeneity assessment summary by using sensitivity and subgroup analysis

From: Hepatitis E virus infection among pregnant women in Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroup analysis No. of studies Prevalence of HEV (95%: CI) Heterogeneity
I2 P
Overall 22 29.1%(14.6–43.6) 99.7% < 0.00001
Sensitivity analysis by removing one study large sample 21 26%(19.9–32.1) 97.5% < 0.00001
Sub region of Africa 22    
 Central Africa 2 10.5%(3–17.9) 93.1 < 0.00001
 East Africa 8 35%(21.7–48.3) 98.1 < 0.00001
 North Africa 4 50%(4.4–95.6) 99.8% < 0.00001
 West Africa 8 16.4 (11.4–21.4) 89.2% < 0.0001
By country having > 2 studies
 Burkina Faso 2 11.1%(7.9–14.3 0 0.754
 Egypt 3 63%(37–89) 97.8% < 0.0001
 Ethiopia 3 44 (31.4–57) 95.4% < 0.0001
 Gabon 2 10.5%(3–18) 93.1% < 0.0001
 Ghana 2 20%(4–36) 94.3% < 0.0001
 Nigeria 2 25.5 (5.6–56.6) 97.3% < 0.0001
 Sudan 3 37.9%(6–69.5) 97.9% < 0.0001
 Others 5 13.8%(8.9–18.9) 85.3% < 0.0001
Publication year
 1993–2008 3 52.4%(.3–105) 99.9% < 0.0001
 2009–2015 9 27.9%(18.3–37.4) 96.6% < 0.0001
 2016–2018 10 22.4%(13.3–31.5) 97.8% < 0.0001
Sample size
 > 200 14 29 (9.6–48.4) 99.8% < 0.0001
 < 200 8 28.8%(17.8–39.8) 97% < 0.0001
Assay method
 Dia.Pro 2 14%(9.5–18.4) 50.1% 0.157
 Euroimmun 3 32.3 (6–59) 97.8% < 0.0001
 Wanti 2 37.2 (26.5–47.7) 92.8% < 0.0001
 TMB 2 10.5 (3–17.9) 93.1 < 0.0001
 Intena.immuno.diag 2 34.8 (22–47.5) 79% < 0.029
 Others 10 31.9%(6.9–56.9) 99.8 < 0.0001