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Table 3 Factors associated with virus positivity on masks surface

From: Contamination by respiratory viruses on outer surface of medical masks used by hospital healthcare workers

Variables Positive for any virus Odds ratio (OR) (95% CI)
Number Percent  
Hospital
 Hospital A 12/77 15.6 Refa
 Hospital B 1/26 3.8 0.22 (0.03–1.75)
 Hospital C 2/45 4.4 0.25 (0.05–1.18)
Ward
 Internal medicine department 13/52 25 Ref
 Respiratory department 1/70 1.4 0.04 (0.01–0.34)d
 Pediatrics department 1/26 3.8 0.12 (0.01–0.97)d
Gender
 Male 4/27 14.8 Ref
 Female 11/121 9.1 0.57 (0.16–1.97)
Position
 Doctor 7/68 10.3 Ref
 Nurse 8/80 10 0.97 (0.33–2.82)
Age
  ≤ 30 years 5/41 12.2 Ref
 31–40 years 5/68 7.4 0.57 (0.15–2.11)
  ≥ 41 years 5/39 12.8 1.06 (0.28–3.98)
Mask use time during the study
  ≤ 6 h 1/49 2 Ref
  > 6 h 14/99 14.1 7.9 (1.01–61.99)d
Patients’ seen
  ≤ 25 cases 3/77 3.9 Ref
  > 25 cases 12/71 16.9 5.02 (1.35–18.60)d
How medical masks were used
 Used continuously 4/28 14.3 Ref
 Used continuously except breaksb 9/88 10.2 0.65 (0.19–2.22)
 Used only during patients encounters 0/26 0 0.10 (0.01–2.12)
 Used only high-risk patient encounters 2/6 33.3 3.02 (0.43–21.44)
Preformed AGPs c during the study
 No 7/95 7.4 Ref
 Yes 8/53 15.1 2.24 (0.76–6.55)
Hand wash
 No 2/13 15.4 Ref
 Yes 13/135 9.6 0.59 (0.12–2.94)
  1. a Reference b lunch, tea and toilet c aerosol generating procedures dSignificant results