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Table 1 Patient characteristics by socioeconomic status for pediatric patients examined at private and public clinics – Niterói, RJ, Brazil, 2014

From: Differences in gram-positive bacterial colonization and antimicrobial resistance among children in a high income inequality setting

Demographic characteristic High-income patient Middle/low-income patient Slum resident patient Total P value
n % n % n % n %
Male 151 52 64 51 90 49 305 51 0.83
Mean age in years (SD) 3.2 4 5.9 5 6.3 5 4.8 5 < 0.01
Child race or ethnicity          < 0.01
 White 209 72 52 42 58 32 319 53  
 Mixed (pardo or mestiço) 63 22 58 46 108 59 229 38  
 Black 18 6 15 12 17 9 50 8  
Attends childcare center 53 18 21 17 18 10 92 15 0.04
Child attends a public childcare center or school (vs private) 9 6 55 67 93 79 157 26 < 0.01
Stable income 270 93 105 85 130 71 505 84 < 0.01
Mean monthly household income in USD (SD) 3500 2985 1005 1277 669 500 2141 2578 < 0.01
Receives government financial assistance (Bolsa Família) 3 1 41 33 76 43 120 20 < 0.01
Geocoded distance to slum census tract          < 0.01
 Within slum census tract 1 0.4 19 16 30 19 50 8  
 Within 50 m 6 2 12 10 66 41 84 14  
 Within 100 m 8 3 18 15 15 9 41 7  
 More than 100 m 250 94 69 59 49 31 368 62  
Number of persons in household          < 0.01
 2 (Single parent/guardian) 10 4 6 5 11 6 27 5  
 3 or 4 225 78 74 59 109 60 408 68  
 5 or more 55 19 45 36 63 34 163 27  
Other children 5 years or younger in household 55 19 37 30 55 30 147 25 0.01
Residence type          < 0.01
 Apartment 100 35 2 2 0 0 102 17  
 House 189 65 123 98 183 100 495 83  
Education of guardian          < 0.01
 Illiterate or incomplete primary education 0 0 34 27 66 36 100 17  
 Complete primary education or incomplete secondary education 4 1 35 28 44 24 83 14  
 Complete secondary education or incomplete higher education 117 40 41 33 63 35 221 37  
 Complete higher education 169 58 14 11 9 5 192 32  
Employment status of guardian          < 0.01
 Employed 254 85 75 60 120 66 440 74  
 Unemployed 8 3 9 7 8 4 25 4  
 Stay-at-home parent/guardian 30 10 30 24 47 26 107 18  
 Other (retired, student etc.) 7 2 11 9 6 3 24 4  
Animals living in the house 119 41 70 56 87 48 276 46 0.02
Total 290 49 125 21 183 31 598 100  
  1. SD Standard deviation