Skip to main content

Table 1 Case reports associated with Bordetella trematum

From: Bordetella trematum infection: case report and review of previous cases

Case report Clinical information Infection isolate(s) Susceptibilty profile of B. trematuma,b Therapya Outcome
Daxboeck et al. (2004) [3] Male, 82-year-old, with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and infected ulcer on left foot. Bordetella trematum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Susceptible to AMI, AMC, CTX, CAZ, GEN, IMI, TZP.
Resistant to CXM and CIP.
10-day treatment of AMC and CIP; without clinical improvement; the antimicrobial treatment was discontinued. Favorable
Hernández-Porto et al. (2013) [2] Female, 76-year-old, with DM, renal failure, peripheral vascular disease, and ulcers in lower extremities B. trematum and Achromobacter xylosoxidans Susceptible to AMI (16 μg/mL), AMC (2 μg/mL), CAZ (8 μg/mL), GEN (4 μg/mL), IMI (0,5 μg/mL), MEM (0.125 μg/mL), TZP (1 μg/mL) and SXT (0.5 μg/mL)
Resistant to ATM (>  32 μg/mL), CTX (>  32 μg/mL), CXM (4 μg/mL) and CIP (4 μg/mL).
21 days with SXT and 14 days with CAZ (initiated 2 weeks after positive culture for B. trematum). Favorable
Halim et al. (2014) [4] Male, 60-year-old, no history of pathologies, presenting thorax burns by butane gas B. trematum and Enterobacter cloacae in blood culture Susceptible to CIP, CLA, CL, DOX, IMI, MIN and NET.
Resistant to AMI, AMC, CTX, CAZ, CF, GEN, and TOB.
IMI, NET, and CL. Death
Almagro-Molto, Eder, Schubert (Case 1) (2015) [5] Male, 65-year-old, with DM, peripheral vascular disease and foot ulcer B. trematum, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Alcaligenes faecalis and Morganella morganii Susceptible to AMI, AMC, AMP, CPM, GEN, IMI, LVX, MEM, MIN, PIP, TZP, SXT, TGC, and TOB.
Resistant to CTX, FOX, CAZ, CXM, CIP, ETP, and FOS.
Debridement and 7-day course of CIP Persistence of infection
Almagro-Molto, Eder, Schubert (Case 2) (2015) [5] Female, 72-year-old, suspected of osteomyelitis, bone defects in the feet and ankles, venous disorder, impaired renal function, ulcer in both feet B. trematum, P. vulgaris and A. faecalis in both feet ulcer exsudate samples/B. trematum, MRSA, A. faecalis and S. maltophilia in the surgical sample of ulcer of both feet Susceptible to AMI, AMC, AMP, CPM, GENc, IMI, LVXc, MEM, MIN, PIP, TZP, SXT, TGC, and TOB.
Intermediate to ETP and LVXc
Resistant to CTX, FOX, CAZ, CXM, CIP, FOS, and GENc.
Compression therapy and 14-day course of CIP; despite clinical improvement, both limbs were amputated after 3 weeks; antimicrobial therapy with TZP (7 days) followed by MEM (7 days) Favorable
Saksena, Manchanda, Mittal (2015) [6] Young girl, 7-month-old, febrile, presenting vomiting; provisional diagnosis of infantile tremor syndrome with protein energy malnutrition and developmental delay B. trematum in blood culture Susceptible to AMS (8 μg/mL), CIP (1 μg/mL), IMI (1 μg/mL), TZP (8. μg/mL) and SXT (20 μg/mL)
Intermediate to CPM (16 μg/mL), CRO (32 μg/mL), LVX (4 μg/mL), PIP (64 μg/mL) and TOB (8 μg/mL)
Resistant to AMI (64 μg/mL), CAZ (64 μg/mL), CL (16 μg/mL), GEN (16 μg/mL), MEM (16 μg/mL)
Empirical therapy with CRO for 5 days; then the treatment switched to TZP and AMI; on the 12th day, therapy was modified to CIP and AZM (5 days) Favorable
Almuzara et al. (2015) [7] Male, 14-year-old, febrile and hemodynamically unstable, presenting left hip septic arthritis. Diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis (S. aureus) Escherichia coli and B. trematum in bone biopsy Susceptible to AMI (16 μg/mL), CPM (4 μg/mL), CAZ (4 μg/mL), CF (8 μg/mL), CL (≤ 5 μg/mL), GEN (4 μg/mL), IMI (≤ 1 μg/mL), MEM (≤ 0.25 μg/mL) and SXT (≤ 2 μg/mL)
Intermediate to AMP (16 μg/mL), AMS (16 μg/mL), CTX (32 μg/mL) and CIP (2 μg/mL)
Multiple surgical debridement, antimicrobial treatment with MEM and SXT for 6 months; MIN later Favorable
Majewski et al. (2016) [8] Transgender male, 61-year-old, with below-knee amputations in both lower limbs, DM, stage IV chronic kidney disease, and coronary artery disease, with a right femur fracture after a fall, respiratory distress, septic shock and worsening of left leg wound after hospitalization B. trematum in blood culture Susceptible to AMI, AMC, CAZ (8 μg/mL), CIP (0,008 μg/mL), IMI (0.25 μg/mL), LVX (0,03 μg/mL), TZP (2 μg/mL) and TOB
Intermediate to CTX (16 μg/mL)
Resistant to CXM and GEN
Empirical treatment with TZP and VAN; the left lower limb infection worsened, treatment switch to CIP; due to necrotizing fasciitis probability CLI was added; persistence of septic shock, TOB added Death
Current report Female, 74-year-old, with necrotic ulcers in both legs, presenting signs of local infection, systemic arterial hypertension; DM; hypothyroidism; peripheral arterial occlusive disease; stage IV chronic kidney disease B. trematum, E. faecalis and S. maltophilia in a tissue fragment MIC ≤025 μg/mL to TGC, CLI and PB; MIC 0.5 μg/mL to DOR; MIC 1 μg/mL to CIP, LVX, IMI and MEM; MIC 2 μg/mL to DOX, GEN, MIN, TOB and CPM; MIC 4 μg/mL to AMI and CAZ; MIC 8 μg/mL to CTX; MIC 4/2 μg/mL to AMS; MIC 8/4 μg/mL to TZP; MIC 9.5/4.5 μg/mL to SXT MIC 16/2 μg/mL to TIM; MIC > 16 μg/mL to ATM Empirical treatment with TZP and surgical debridement; treatment switch to VAN and MEM due to septic shock; LVX added aiming S. maltophilia Death
  1. aAMI amikacin, AMC amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, AMP ampicillin, AMS ampicillin-sulbactam, AZM azithromycin, ATM aztreonam, CPM cefepime, CTX cefotaxime, FOX cefoxitin, CAZ ceftazidime, CRO ceftriaxone, CXM cefuroxime, CIP ciprofloxacin, CLA clarithromycin, CLI clindamycin, CF cephalothin, CL colistin, DOR doripenem, DOX doxycycline, ETP ertapenem, FOS fosfomycin, GEN gentamicin, IMI imipenem, LVX levofloxacin, MEM meropenem, MIN minocycline, NET netilmicin, PB polymyxin B, PIP piperacillin, TIM ticarcillin-clavulanate, TZP piperacillin-tazobactam, SXT sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, TGC tigecycline, TOB tobramycin, VAN vancomycin, MIC minimum inhibitory concentration, MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  2. bMethodology for susceptibility testing was the E-test [2, 3, 5, 6]; disk-diffusion [2, 4, 8]; broth microdilution [3, 6]; VITEK 2 [5, 7]
  3. cAfter amputation of lower limbs, change was seen in susceptibility profile in the second isolate