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Table 2 Characteristics of included admissions overall and by site

From: Influenza epidemiology and influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2015–2016 season: results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

Category n (%)
St. Petersburg Moscow Czech Republic Turkey France Beijing Valencia Mexico India Curitiba Total
N = 2071 N = 1934 N = 124 N = 704 N = 141 N = 2157 N = 2145 N = 96 N = 331 N = 179 N = 9882
Age (y), median [IQR] 2 [0–12] 20 [3–29] 48 [31–69] 6 [0–65] 66 [51–79] 9 [3–66] 70 [39–82] 42 [20–58] 37 [0–65] 1 [0–6] 20 [2–61]
Age groupa
 0–1 y 813 (39.3) 239 (12.4) 0 (0.0) 247 (35.1) 0 (0.0) 309 (14.3) 317 (14.8) 7 (7.3) 111 (33.5) 102 (57.0) 2145 (21.7)
 2–4 y 550 (26.6) 365 (18.9) 0 (0.0) 96 (13.7) 0 (0.0) 572 (26.5) 82 (3.8) 6 (6.3) 13 (3.9) 27 (15.1) 1711 (17.3)
 5–17 y 261 (12.6) 228 (11.8) 0 (0.0) 69 (9.8) 0 (0.0) 258 (12.0) 53 (2.5) 10 (10.4) 6 (1.8) 23 (12.8) 908 (9.2)
 18–49 y 356 (17.2) 1000 (51.7) 66 (53.2) 41 (5.8) 32 (22.7) 216 (10.0) 190 (8.9) 33 (34.4) 59 (17.8) 8 (4.5) 2001 (20.2)
 50–64 y 69 (3.3) 67 (3.5) 18 (14.5) 70 (10.0) 32 (22.7) 239 (11.1) 275 (12.8) 23 (24.0) 41 (12.4) 13 (7.3) 847 (8.6)
 65–74 y 6 (0.3) 15 (0.8) 16 (12.9) 59 (8.4) 27 (19.1) 244 (11.3) 352 (16.4) 4 (4.2) 64 (19.3) 5 (2.8) 792 (8.0)
 75–84 y 15 (0.7) 17 (0.9) 18 (14.5) 85 (12.1) 29 (20.6) 260 (12.1) 489 (22.8) 11 (11.5) 31 (9.4) 1 (0.6) 956 (9.7)
 ≥ 85 y 1 (<  0.1) 3 (0.2) 6 (4.8) 36 (5.1) 21 (14.9) 59 (2.7) 387 (18.0) 2 (2.1) 6 (1.8) 0 (0.0) 521 (5.3)
Sex
 Male 1180 (57.0) 1002 (51.8) 67 (54.0) 378 (53.7) 63 (44.7) 1223 (56.7) 1151 (53.7) 42 (43.8) 180 (54.4) 94 (52.5) 5380 (54.4)
 Female 891 (43.0) 932 (48.2) 57 (46.0) 326 (46.3) 78 (55.3) 934 (43.3) 994 (46.3) 54 (56.3) 151 (45.6) 85 (47.5) 4502 (45.6)
Chronic conditions
 0 1872 (90.4) 1718 (88.8) 60 (48.4) 337 (47.9) 42 (29.8) 1529 (70.9) 742 (34.6) 32 (33.3) 156 (47.1) 118 (65.9) 6606 (66.8)
 1 164 (7.9) 172 (8.9) 37 (29.8) 177 (25.1) 47 (33.3) 406 (18.8) 611 (28.5) 29 (30.2) 84 (25.4) 40 (22.3) 1767 (17.9)
 >  1 35 (1.7) 44 (2.3) 27 (21.8) 190 (27.0) 52 (36.9) 222 (10.3) 792 (36.9) 35 (36.5) 91 (27.5) 21 (11.7) 1509 (15.3)
Hospitalized within ≤12 mo
 No 1408 (68.0) 1577 (81.5) 99 (79.8) 385 (54.7) 76 (53.9) 1774 (82.2) 1448 (67.5) 62 (64.6) 202 (61.0) 137 (76.5) 7168 (72.5)
 Yes 663 (32.0) 357 (18.5) 25 (20.2) 319 (45.3) 65 (46.1) 383 (17.8) 697 (32.5) 34 (35.4) 129 (39.0) 42 (23.5) 2714 (27.5)
Underlying conditions
 Cardiovascular disease 59 (2.8) 100 (5.2) 38 (30.6) 219 (31.1) 60 (42.6) 427 (19.8) 842 (39.3) 30 (31.3) 94 (28.4) 19 (10.6) 1888 (19.1)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 21 (1.0) 18 (0.9) 4 (3.2) 98 (13.9) 30 (21.3) 252 (11.7) 510 (23.8) 7 (7.3) 85 (25.7) 14 (7.8) 1039 (10.5)
 Asthma 44 (2.1) 19 (1.0) 10 (8.1) 60 (8.5) 8 (5.7) 52 (2.4) 170 (7.9) 14 (14.6) 18 (5.4) 29 (16.2) 424 (4.3)
 Immunodeficiency/organ transplant 11 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 6 (4.8) 33 (4.7) 8 (5.7) 1 (<  0.1) 19 (0.9) 10 (10.4) 3 (0.9) 1 (0.6) 92 (0.9)
 Diabetes 14 (0.7) 19 (1.0) 16 (12.9) 88 (12.5) 28 (19.9) 98 (4.5) 515 (24.0) 12 (12.5) 37 (11.2) 13 (7.3) 840 (8.5)
 Chronic renal impairment 14 (0.7) 54 (2.8) 6 (4.8) 54 (7.7) 22 (15.6) 15 (0.7) 247 (11.5) 16 (16.7) 26 (7.9) 0 (0.0) 454 (4.6)
 Chronic neuromuscular disease 47 (2.3) 19 (1.0) 3 (2.4) 59 (8.4) 4 (2.8) 22 (1.0) 38 (1.8) 7 (7.3) 5 (1.5) 8 (4.5) 212 (2.1)
 Active neoplasm 6 (0.3) 8 (0.4) 12 (9.7) 57 (8.1) 18 (12.8) 28 (1.3) 148 (6.9) 4 (4.2) 22 (6.6) 1 (0.6) 304 (3.1)
 Chronic liver disease 15 (0.7) 21 (1.1) 3 (2.4) 8 (1.1) 4 (2.8) 9 (0.4) 73 (3.4) 3 (3.1) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 137 (1.4)
 Autoimmune disease 13 (0.6) 15 (0.8) 4 (3.2) 10 (1.4) 0 (0.0) 8 (0.4) 27 (1.3) 11 (11.5) 14 (4.2) 2 (1.1) 104 (1.1)
 Pregnant (women 15–45 y) 0 (0.0) 596 (30.8) 2 (1.6) 2 (0.3) 4 (2.8) 0 (0.0) 3 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 4 (1.2) 4 (2.2) 615 (6.2)
 Obeseb,c 202 (9.8) 200 (10.3) 36 (29.0) 116 (19.5) 23 (16.3) 238 (11.0) 529 (24.7) 25 (26.3) 31 (9.4) 25 (14.0) 1425 (14.4)
Outpatient consultations within ≤3 mod
 0 927 (44.8) 655 (33.9) 43 (34.7) 164 (23.3) 17 (12.1) 1039 (48.2) 214 (10.0) 38 (39.6) 46 (13.9) 47 (26.3) 2151 (21.8)
 1 660 (31.9) 447 (23.1) 34 (27.4) 186 (26.4) 54 (38.6) 1022 (47.4) 246 (11.5) 18 (18.8) 54 (16.3) 74 (41.3) 2812 (28.5)
 ≥ 2 484 (23.4) 832 (43.0) 47 (37.9) 354 (50.3) 69 (49.3) 96 (4.45) 1685 (78.6) 40 (41.7) 231 (69.8) 58 (32.4) 4918 (49.8)
Smoking habits (≥ 18 y)e
 Never smoked 221 (49.4) 571 (51.8) 70 (56.5) 153 (58.0) 64 (45.4) 570 (56.0) 749 (44.2) 39 (53.4) 103 (51.2) 8 (29.6) 2548 (50.1)
 Past smoker 57 (12.8) 249 (22.6) 15 (12.1) 87 (33.0) 41 (29.1) 270 (26.5) 569 (33.6) 29 (39.7) 74 (36.8) 13 (48.1) 1404 (27.6)
 Current smoker 169 (37.8) 282 (25.6) 39 (31.5) 24 (9.1) 36 (25.5) 178 (17.5) 375 (22.2) 5 (6.8) 24 (11.9) 6 (22.2) 1138 (22.4)
Functional impairment status (Barthel index, patients ≥65 y)f
 Total (0–15) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (2.5) 21 (11.7) 0 (0.0) 37 (11.8) 116 (9.5) 0 (0.0) 5 (5.1) 0 (0.0) 180 (8.9)
 Severe (20–35) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 12 (6.7) 1 (1.3) 10 (3.2) 45 (3.7) 1 (5.9) 8 (8.2) 0 (0.0) 77 (3.8)
 Moderate (40–55) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (2.5) 14 (7.8) 4 (5.2) 38 (12.1) 72 (5.9) 2 (11.8) 23 (23.5) 0 (0.0) 154 (7.7)
 Mild (60–90) 4 (18.2) 7 (20.0) 5 (12.5) 71 (39.7) 16 (20.8) 172 (55.0) 230 (18.7) 8 (47.1) 41 (41.8) 0 (0.0) 554 (27.5)
 Minimal (95–100) 18 (81.8) 28 (80.0) 33 (82.5) 61 (34.1) 56 (72.7) 56 (17.9) 764 (62.3) 6 (35.3) 21 (21.4) 5 (100.0) 1048 (52.1)
Time from onset of symptoms to swabbing
 0–2 d 1102 (53.2) 1025 (53.1) 41 (33.1) 133 (19.1) 63 (44.7) 503 (23.3) 446 (20.8) 17 (17.9) 34 (10.3) 37 (20.7) 3401 (34.5)
 3–4 d 656 (31.7) 619 (32.1) 46 (37.1) 251 (36.1) 41 (29.1) 628 (29.1) 820 (38.3) 22 (23.2) 130 (39.3) 98 (54.7) 3311 (33.6)
 5–7 d 313 (15.1) 281 (14.6) 36 (29.0) 301 (43.2) 37 (26.2) 899 (41.7) 681 (31.8) 48 (50.5) 164 (49.5) 43 (24.0) 2803 (28.4)
 8–9 d 0 (0.0) 4 (0.2) 1 (0.8) 11 (1.6) 0 (0.0) 126 (5.8) 196 (9.1) 8 (8.4) 3 (0.9) 1 (0.6) 350 (3.5)
 >  10 or missing 5 8 1 2 1 17
Vaccinated for influenza during 2015–2016g 45 (2.2) 87 (4.5) 7 (5.6) 49 (7.0) 60 (42.6) 262 (12.1) 923 (43.0) 19 (19.8) 15 (4.5) 58 (32.4) 1525 (15.4)
 ≥ 14 d from ILI onseth 45 (100.0) 87 (100.0) 7 (100.0) 41 (83.7) 60 (100.0) 260 (99.2) 912 (98.8) 5 (26.3) 15 (100.0) 46 (79.3) 1478 (96.9)
  1. Abbreviations: ILI influenza-like illness
  2. a1 missing for Turkey
  3. b29 missing for Turkey
  4. cDetermined from the body mass index according to age and sex following the World Health Organization guidelines [12]
  5. d1 missing for France; Beijing categories were 0, 1–3, and ≥ 4
  6. e28 missing in Turkey
  7. f2 missing for Turkey, 250 for Beijing, 1 for Valencia, 3 for India, 1 for Curitiba
  8. g2 missing for St. Petersburg
  9. hPercentages are calculated relative to vaccinated patients