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Table 3 Characteristics of patients hospitalized for norovirus gastroenteritis (N = 470)

From: Nationwide epidemiologic study of norovirus-related hospitalization among Japanese older adults

Characteristics n (%) or
median (range)a
Characteristics n (%) or
median (range)a
Sex Male 194 (42) Laboratory data at the time of admission
Age (years) 60–69 66 (14)  White blood cell (/μL) Decreased 17 (4)
  70–79 145 (31)   Normal 231 (51)
≥80 259 (55)   Increased 202 (45)
Residence at symptom onset  Hemoglobin (g/dL) Decreased 190 (42)
  Home 287 (62)   Normal 249 (55)
Long-term care facility 62 (13)   Increased 17 (4)
Hospital 115 (25)  Platelet count (× 104/μL) Decreased 47 (10)
Underlying illnesses 424 (90)   Normal 386 (84)
  Hypertension 213 (45)   Increased 28 (6)
Heart disease 121 (26)  C-reactive protein (mg/dL) Increased 349 (77)
Diabetes 106 (23)  Blood sugar (mg/dL) Decreased 18 (5)
Stroke 121 (26)   Normal 102 (26)
Malignant tumor 66 (14)   Increased 268 (69)
Renal disease 38 (8)  Albumin (g/dL) Decreased 230 (59)
Chronic respiratory disease 32 (7)  Aspartate aminotransferase (IU/L) Increased 205 (45)
Liver disease 24 (5)  Creatinine (mg/dL) Increased 200 (44)
Hematological disorders 13 (3)  Sodium (mEq/L) Decreased 81 (18)
Collagen diseases 7 (1)   Normal 375 (82)
Possible causes of infection   Increased 4 (1)
  Contaminated food 43 (9)  Potassium (mEq/L) Decreased 106 (23)
Contact with infected person(s) 95 (21)   Normal 329 (72)
Disease epidemic in the area 99 (21)   Increased 24 (5)
Tested for norovirus 287 (61)  Chloride (mEq/L) Decreased 54 (12)
 Test result Positive 153 (53)   Normal 376 (83)
Clinical symptoms at the time of admission Increased 23 (5)
 Diarrhea Present 377 (80) Treatment   
  Duration (days) 4 (1–36)a  Intravenous drip 386 (82)
Frequency per day 3.5 (1–33)a  Antibiotics 201 (43)
 Vomiting Present 232 (49)  Oxygen supplementation 73 (16)
  Duration (days) 2 (1–14)a  Intensive care unit therapy 10 (2)
Frequency per day 1.5 (1–25)a  Use of respirator 7 (1)
 Fever Present 262 (56) Duration of hospital admission (days) 11 (1–2359)a
  Maximum fever (°C) 37.85 (37.0–40.3)a Clinical outcome Recovered 438 (93)
Complications Aspiration pneumonia 28 (6)   Moved to hospital 10 (2)
  Others 35 (8) Deceased 21 (4)
Modified Vesikari scale 8 (0–16)a Self-discharged 1 (0.2)
  1. amedian (range)