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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of the risk factors of developing health complaints after contact with floodwater

From: “Sickenin’ in the rain” – increased risk of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections after urban pluvial flooding in a population-based cross-sectional study in the Netherlands

Risk factors Total number of participants N (%) Total number of adults N (%) Total number of children N (%)
Chronic diseases
 Chronic disorder or disease of the gastrointestinal tract 27 (2) 27 (3) 0 (0)
 Reflux 8 (1) 7 (1) 1 (1)
 Food allergy 23 (2) 18 (2) 5 (3)
 Pregnancy with vomiting 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Hay fever 140 (12) 124 (12) 16 (9)
 Lung anomalies 79 (7) 68 (7) 11 (6)
 No chronic diseases 881 (76) 738 (75) 143 (81)
Type of exposure
 Skin contact 527 (46) 457 (47) 70 (40)
 Droplets of floodwater in the mouth 19 (2) 15 (2) 4 (2)
 Gulp of floodwater in the mouth 139 (12) 113 (11) 26 (15)
 Head submerged in floodwater 5 (0) 4 (0) 1 (0)
 Not exposed 468 (40) 393 (40) 75 (43)
Type of activity
 Cleaning inside 320 (28) 311 (32) 9 (5)
 Cleaning outside 213 (18) 208 (21) 5 (3)
 Swum in floodwater 3 (0) 0 (0) 3 (2)
 Used rubber boat 7 (1) 4 (0) 3 (2)
 Walked through floodwater 198 (17) 158 (16) 40 (23)
 Cycled through floodwater 86 (7) 71 (7) 15 (8)
 Driven through floodwater by car 139 (12) 135 (14) 4 (2)
 No activities 192 (17) 95 (10) 97 (55)
Location of flooding
 Toilet overflow 250 (22) 209 (21) 41 (23)
 No toilet overflow 908 (78) 773 (79) 135 (77)
 Street flooding 779 (67) 650 (66) 129 (73)
 No street flooding 379 (33) 332 (34) 47 (27)