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Table 2 Factors associated with lymphedema and hydrocele

From: The social, physical and economic impact of lymphedema and hydrocele: a matched cross-sectional study in rural Nigeria

Characteristics Control (N = 52) Cases (N = 52) OR (95%CI) P-value
(Fisher’s exact)
Marital status
 Married 52 (100%) 40 (76.92%) 1.00  
 Divorced 0 (0%) 2 (3.85%) Inf (0.233 – Inf) 0.197
 Never married 0 (0%) 10 (19.23%) Inf (2.68 – Inf) < 0.001
Occupational level
 Unskilled 31 (59.61%) 44 (84.61%) 1.00  
 No work 7 (13.46%) 5 (9.62%) 0.51 (0.12–2.05) 0.351
 Skilled 14 (26.92%) 3 (5.77%) 0.15 (0.03–0.62) 0.002
Educational level
 Primary education 18 (34.62%) 26 (50%) 1.00  
 No formal education 1 (1.92%) 9 (17.31%) 6.07 (0.73–287.58) 0.079
 Secondary education 18 (34.61%) 13 (25%) 0.50 (0.17–1.40) 0.165
 Tertiary education 13 (25%) 4 (7.69%) 0.22 (0.04–0.86) 0.021
 Post graduate education 2 (3.84%) 0 (0%) 0 (0.00–4.04) 0.184
Mobility
 No problem 52 (100%) 20 (38.46%) 1.00  
 Mild problem 0 (0%) 13 (25.00%) Inf (6.89 – Inf) < 0.001
 Moderate problem 0 (0%) 3 (5.77%) Inf (0.98 – Inf) 0.026
 Severe problem 0 (0%) 16 (30.77%) Inf (8.69 – Inf) < 0.001
Self-care
 No problem 52 (100%) 35 (67%) 1.00  
 Difficulty in self-care 0 (0%) 7 (13.46%) Inf (1.97 – Inf) < 0.001
 Only essential needs are met 0 (0%) 3 (5.77%) Inf (0.58 – Inf) 0.072
 Require someone to help for care 0 (0%) 6 (11.54%) Inf (1.61 – Inf) 0.006
 Unable to take care of self 0 (0%) 1 (1.92%) Inf (0.37 – Inf) 0.41
Usual activity
 No problem 52 (100%) 38 (73.08%) 1.00  
 Usual activity performed with difficulty 0 (0%) 9 (17.31%) Inf (2.48 – Inf) 0.001
 Only essential activities performed 0 (0%) 4 (7.69%) Inf (0.85 – Inf) 0.037
 No activity at all 0 (0%) 1 (1.92%) Inf (0.34 – Inf) 0.429
Pain and discomfort
 No pain 40 (76.92%) 1 (1.92%) 1.00  
 Mild pain, without self-treatment 9 (17.31%) 20 (38.46%) 81.27 (10.58–3678.40) < 0.001
 Mild pain, with self-treatment 1 (1.92%) 7 (13.46%) 174.16 (11.83–11,241.6) < 0.001
 Compelled to rest due to pain 0 (0%) 24 (46.15%) Inf (75.48 – Inf) < 0.001
 Consult doctor and total rest 2 (3.85%) 0 (0%) 0 (0.00–789.64) 1
Pain frequency
 No pain 40 (76.92%) 1 (1.92%) 1.00  
 Weekly 2 (3.85%) 14 (26.92%) 133.14 (11.72–7481.31) < 0.001
 Monthly 2 (3.85%) 9 (17.31%) 108.53 (14.14–4876.50) < 0.001
 Daily 8 (15.38%) 24 (46.15%) 206.92 (19.38–10,808.72) < 0.001
 Constant 0 (0%) 4 (7.69%) Inf (9.55 – Inf) < 0.001
Pain severity
 No pain 40 (76.92%) 1 (1.92%) 1.00  
 Mild 9 (17.31%) 3 (5.77%) 12.44 (0.89–713.07) 0.032
 Medium 1 (1.92%) 18 (34.61%) 434.47 (34.52–16,384.00) < 0.001
 Severe 2 (3.85%) 30 (57.69%) 439.78 (43.96–16,384.00) < 0.001
Cognition
 No problem 52 (100%) 46 (88.46%) 1.00  
 Reduced concentration, memory affected 0 (0%) 4 (7.69%) Inf (0.70 – Inf) 0.054
 Loss of concentration 0 (0%) 0 (0%) Inf (0.20 – Inf) 0.228
Anxiety
 No anxiety 52 (100%) 6 (11.54%) 1.00  
 Does not interfere with performance 0 (0%) 9 (17.31%) Inf (12.27 – Inf) < 0.001
 Leads to low performance and irritating tendency 0 (0%) 22 (42.31%) Inf (33.17 – Inf) < 0.001
 No performance and total detachment 0 (0%) 13 (25%) Inf (18.69 – Inf) < 0.001
 Suicidal tendency 0 (0%) 2 (3.85%) Inf (1.31 – Inf) 0.016
Sleep problems
 No sleep problem 42 (76.92%) 22 (42.31%) 1.00  
 Sleep problem rarely 10 (23.08%) 9 (17.31%) 1.7 (0.53–5.48) 0.418
 Sleep problem occasionally 0 (0%) 8 (15.39%) Inf (2.87 – Inf) 0.001
 Sleep problem often 0 (0%) 6 (11.53%) Inf (2.00 – Inf) 0.003
 Cannot sleep most nights 0 (0%) 7 (13.46%) Inf (2.43 – Inf) 0.001
Social participation
 No problem with social participation 51 (98.08%) 26 (50%) 1.00  
 Avoid social activities as far as possible 1 (1.92%) 19 (36.54%) 36.05 (5.18–1564.69) < 0.001
 Total avoidance of social activities 0 (0%) 7 (13.46%) Inf (2.55 – Inf) 0.001
Work hours
  > 8 h 24 (46.15%) 20 (38.46%) 1.00  
 5–8 h 9 (17.31%) 5 (9.62%) 0.67 (0.15–2.9 - 68) 0.556
 1–4 h 1 (1.92%) 11 (21.15%) 12.70 (1.60–589.43) 0.007
 No work 7 (13.46%) 5 (9.62%) 0.86 (0.18–3.72) 1
 Seasonal work 6 (11.54%) 2 (3.85%) 0.41 (0.04–2.61) 0.442
 Retired 5 (9.62%) 9 (17.31%) 2.13 (0.54–9.50) 0.358
Treatment expenditure on last hospital visit
  < 40,000 Naira (about US $125) 48 (92.31%) 9 (17.31%) 1.00  
  > 40,000 Naira (about US $125) 2 (3.85%) 35 (67.31%) 85.90 (17.48–874.90) < 0.001
 Unable to quantify 2 (3.85%) 8 (15.39%) 19.90 (3.28–221.68) < 0.001
Bed net/door and window screens
 No net use 18 (34.62%) 30 (57.69%) 1.00  
 Screen on doors and windows 2 (3.85%) 7 (13.46%) 2.07 (0.34–22.61) 0.471
 Bed net use 32 (61.54%) 15 (28.85%) 0.28 (0.11–0.71) 0.004
  1. Reference category – that with the highest count was chosen as the reference category
  2. Results at 0.05 significance level appear in bold