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Table 3 Clinical characteristics associated with death due to moderate-to-severe diarrhea in the univariate analysis, in children 0–59 months of age

From: Risk factors for death among children 0–59 months of age with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in Manhiça district, southern Mozambique

Variable Vital child’s status at 60-day visit Total Hazar Ratio p-value
Alive Dead
Demographic characteristics
Gender: Femalea 307 / 752 (41%) 30 / 69 (43%) 337 / 821 (41%) 1.127 (0.698, 1.804) 0.6199*
Clinical history before hospital admission
 Oralite or orsa 202 / 752 (27%) 24 / 69 (35%) 226 / 821 (28%) 1.404 (0.846, 2.274) 0.1840*
 Special milk or infant formulaa 1 / 752 (0%) 0 / 69 (0%) 1 / 821 (0%) 5.277 (0.042,.) 0.3565*
 Home remedy/herbal medicationa 138 / 752 (18%) 19 / 69 (28%) 157 / 821 (19%) 1.617 (0.936, 2.684) 0.0832*
 No special remedies givena 399 / 752 (53%) 32 / 69 (46%) 431 / 821 (52%) 0.800 (0.497, 1.281) 0.3533*
How long has this episode lastedb 2.00 (2.00) [752] 2.00 (2.00) [69] 2.00 (2.00) [821] 1.117 (0.922, 1.330)c 0.2473*
Describe stoola Simple watery 422 (56%) 48 (70%) 470 (57%) reference 0.0630*
Rice watery stool 12 (2%) 0 (0%) 12 (1%) 0.404 (0.003,.)
Sticky/Mucoid 200 (27%) 18 (26%) 218 (27%) 0.815 (0.465, 1.368)
Bloody 118 (16%) 3 (4%) 121 (15%) 0.281 (0.076, 0.747)
Total 752 (100%) 69 (100%) 821 (100%)  
Hospital admission
 Child was admitted to hospitala 471 / 752 (63%) 60 / 69 (87%) 531 / 821 (65%) 3.533 (1.858, 7.520) <  0.0001*
 Received antibioticsa 413 / 752 (55%) 56 / 69 (81%) 469 / 821 (57%) 3.179 (1.799, 6.035) <  0.0001*
 Number of days admittedb 4.00 (3.00) [471] 6.50 (7.00) [58] 4.00 (2.00) [529] 1.103 (1.069, 1.132)c <  0.0001*
Signs/symptoms any time since beginning of episode
 Vomiting 3 or more times per daya 363 / 752 (48%) 33 / 69 (48%) 396 / 821 (48%) 0.942 (0.585, 1.512) 0.8037*
 Unable to drinka 61 / 752 (8%) 5 / 69 (7%) 66 / 821 (8%) 0.993 (0.367, 2.165) 0.9875*
 Fevera 249 / 751 (33%) 31 / 69 (45%) 280 / 820 (34%) 1.620 (1.006, 2.591) 0.0474*
 Belly paina 188 / 752 (25%) 19 / 69 (28%) 207 / 821 (25%) 1.162 (0.673, 1.926) 0.5784*
 Loss of consciousnessa 9 / 752 (1%) 3 / 69 (4%) 12 / 821 (1%) 4.554 (1.258, 11.556) 0.0248*
 Wrinkled skina 195 / 751 (26%) 33 / 69 (48%) 228 / 820 (28%) 2.436 (1.513, 3.912) 0.0003*
 Irritable or restlessa 105 / 752 (14%) 8 / 69 (12%) 113 / 821 (14%) 0.812 (0.367, 1.577) 0.5600*
 Lethargy or loss of consciousnessa 344 / 750 (46%) 44 / 69 (64%) 388 / 819 (47%) 1.989 (1.233, 3.279) 0.0047*
 Convulsiona 29 / 752 (4%) 1 / 69 (1%) 30 / 821 (4%) 0.632 (0.071, 2.335) 0.5514*
 Difficulty breathinga 53 / 751 (7%) 14 / 69 (20%) 67 / 820 (8%) 3.182 (1.705, 5.578) 0.0006*
 Chest indrawinga 113 / 747 (15%) 18 / 68 (26%) 131 / 815 (16%) 1.948 (1.110, 3.276) 0.0213*
 Fast breathinga 171 / 750 (23%) 19 / 69 (28%) 190 / 819 (23%) 1.218 (0.696, 2.055) 0.4784*
 Rectal prolapsea 1 / 751 (0%) 2 / 69 (3%) 3 / 820 (0%) 12.096 (2.501, 35.288) 0.0053*
Dehydration and nutritional status
 Very thirstya 570 / 750 (76%) 48 / 69 (70%) 618 / 819 (75%) 0.754 (0.459, 1.282) 0.2890*
 Drinks poorlya 72 / 751 (10%) 11 / 68 (16%) 83 / 819 (10%) 1.776 (0.894, 3.226) 0.0967*
 Sunken eyesa 368 / 751 (49%) 38 / 69 (55%) 406 / 820 (50%) 1.231 (0.769, 1.985) 0.3861*
 Loss of skin turgora 208 / 752 (28%) 33 / 69 (48%) 241 / 821 (29%) 2.234 (1.388, 3.586) 0.0011*
 Dry moutha 298 / 751 (40%) 37 / 69 (54%) 335 / 820 (41%) 1.680 (1.050, 2.703) 0.0306*
I ntravenous rehydrationa 345 / 752 (46%) 39 / 69 (57%) 384 / 821 (47%) 1.441 (0.895, 2.342) 0.1325*
Skin pincha Normal 529 (70%) 36 (52%) 565 (69%) reference 0.0020*
Slow return (<= 2 s.) 172 (23%) 21 (30%) 193 (24%) 1.690 (0.974, 2.864)
Very slow (>  2 s.) 51 (7%) 12 (17%) 63 (8%) 3.356 (1.696, 6.203)
Total 752 (100%) 69 (100%) 821 (100%)  
Dehydration (at least one of above)a 698 / 752 (93%) 66 / 69 (96%) 764 / 821 (93%) 1.393 (0.549, 5.042) 0.5256*
 Length/height-for-age z-score (median height)d −1.35 (1.38) [746] −2.27 (1.59) [68] −1.43 (1.42) [814] 0.648 (0.554, 0.760)c <  0.0001*
 Bipedal edemaa 11 / 752 (1%) 3 / 69 (4%) 14 / 821 (2%) 3.237 (0.891, 8.271) 0.0701*
 Abnormal haira 57 / 752 (8%) 18 / 69 (26%) 75 / 821 (9%) 3.827 (2.193, 6.388) <  0.0001*
 Skin has ‘flaky paint’ appearancea 9 / 752 (1%) 4 / 69 (6%) 13 / 821 (2%) 4.602 (1.509, 10.721) 0.0108*
Is the child currently breastfeda No 150 (24%) 21 (35%) 171 (25%) reference 0.0036*
Partial breastfeeding 297 (47%) 23 (38%) 320 (46%) 0.281 (0.134, 0.597)
Exclusive breastfeeding 190 (30%) 16 (27%) 206 (30%) 0.275 (0.117, 0.641)
Total 637 (100%) 60 (100%) 697 (100%)  
Hospital diagnoses/co-morbidities
 Dysenterya 120 / 752 (16%) 3 / 69 (4%) 123 / 821 (15%) 0.302 (0.082, 0.786) 0.0112*
 Pneumonia/lower resp. infectiona 125 / 752 (17%) 30 / 69 (43%) 155 / 821 (19%) 3.510 (2.162, 5.651) <  0.0001*
 Meningitisa 0 / 752 (0%) 1 / 69 (1%) 1 / 821 (0%) 62.693 (6.820, 258.067) 0.0023*
 Other invasive bacterial infectiona 1 / 752 (0%) 5 / 69 (7%) 6 / 821 (1%) 17.447 (6.431, 38.158) <  0.0001*
 Malariaa 129 / 752 (17%) 10 / 69 (14%) 139 / 821 (17%) 0.878 (0.430, 1.619) 0.6920*
 Malnutritiona 63 / 752 (8%) 26 / 69 (38%) 89 / 821 (11%) 5.658 (3.439, 9.140) <  0.0001*
 HIVa Tested negative 144 (19%) 7 (10%) 151 (18%) reference 0.0019*
Tested positive 30 (4%) 10 (14%) 40 (5%) 6.041 (2.384, 16.090)
Untested pre-May2010 507 (67%) 48 (70%) 555 (68%) 1.789 (0.882, 4.200)
Untested from May2010 onwards 71 (9%) 4 (6%) 75 (9%) 1.155 (0.327, 3.629)
Total 752 (100%) 69 (100%) 821 (100%)  
  1. *Cox Regression with Firth’s Penalized Likelihood adjusted for age and CI based on the Profile Penalized-Log Likelihood
  2. an (Column percentage)
  3. bMedian (IQR) [n]
  4. cPer unit increase
  5. dArithmetic Mean (SD) [n]