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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients on second-line ART in Rwanda stratified by retention and viral suppression

From: Retention in care and virological failure among adult HIV+ patients on second-line ART in Rwanda: a national representative study

Characteristics Total Retained Defaulting from care Viral load suppression (copies/ml)
Alive LTFU Died Total ≤ 1000 > 1000
n (%) n (%) N (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Median age (IQR) 41 (33,49)
Age category(year)
 15–29 327 (19) 300 (92) 24 (7) 3 (1) 327 (19) 242 (74) 85 (26)
 30–39 426 (25) 390 (92) 28 (7) 8 (2) 426 (25) 344 (81) 82 (19)
 40–59 841 (50) 785 (93) 35 (4) 21 (2) 842 (50) 718 (85) 124 (15)
 60+ 94 (6) 87 (93) 2 (2) 5 (5) 94 (6) 84 (89) 10 (11)
 Total 1688 (100) 1562 (93) 89 (5) 37 (2) 1689 (100) 1388 (82) 301 (18)
Sex
 Female 1031 (61) 952 (92) 55 (5) 24 (2) 1032 (61) 866 (84) 166 (16)
 Male 657 (39) 610 (93) 34 (5) 13 (2) 657 (39) 522 (79) 135 (21)
 Total 1688 (100) 1562 (93) 89 (5) 37 (2) 1689 (100) 1388 (82) 301 (18)
Marital status
 Single 344 (20) 309 (90) 27 (8) 8 (2) 344 (20) 259 (75) 85 (25)
 Married/Cohabitating 648 (38) 602 (93) 30 (5) 16 (2) 649 (38) 540 (83) 109 (17)
 separated/Divorced 98 (6) 89 (91) 7 (7) 2 (2) 98 (6) 86 (88) 12 (12)
 Widowed 226 (13) 214 (95) 6 (3) 6 (3) 226 (13) 198 (88) 28 (12)
 Missing 372 (22) 348 (94) 19 (5) 5 (1) 372 (22) 305 (82) 67 (18)
 Total 1688 (100) 1562 (93) 89 (5) 37 (2) 1689 (100) 1388 (82) 301 (18)
ART Initiation period
 2009 and before 1062 (63) 1004 (95) 34 (3) 24 (2) 1063 (63) 892 (84) 171 (16)
 2010–2012 502 (30) 447 (89) 44 (9) 11 (2) 502 (30) 400 (80) 102 (20)
 2013–2016 123 (7) 110 (89) 11 (9) 2 (2) 123 (7) 96 (78) 27 (22)
 Total 1687 (100) 1561 (93) 89 (5) 37 (2) 1688 (100) 1388 (82) 300 (18)
TB Screening
 Negative 1458 (86) 1356 (93) 75 (5) 27 (2) 1459 (86) 1213 (83) 246 (17)
 Positive 151 (9) 138 (91) 8 (5) 5 (3) 151 (9) 111 (74) 40 (26)
 N/A 79 (5) 68 (86) 6 (8) 5 (6) 79 (5) 64 (81) 15 (19)
 Total 1688 (100) 1562 (93) 89 (5) 37 (2) 1689 (100) 1388 (82) 301 (18)
Body mass index
 Normal weight 964 (57) 894 (93) 50 (5) 20 (2) 965 (57) 783 (81) 182 (19)
 Underweight 186 (11) 165 (89) 13 (7) 8 (4) 186 (11) 144 (77) 42 (23)
 overweight & Obese 538 (32) 503 (93) 26 (5) 9 (2) 538 (32) 461 (86) 77 (14)
 Total 1688 (100) 1562 (93) 89 (5) 37 (2) 1689 (100) 1388 (82) 301 (18)
Median CD4 (IQR) 418 (248, 618)
  >  500 cells/mm3 638 (38) 606 (95) 26 (4) 6 (1) 638 (38) 599 (94) 39 (6)
  ≤ 500 cells/mm3 1050 (62) 956 (91) 63 (6) 31 (3) 1051 (62) 789 (75) 262 (25)
 Total 1688 (100) 1562 (93) 89 (5) 37 (2) 1689 (100) 1388 (82) 301 (18)
WHO stage
 Stage 1–2 1042 (62) 971 (93) 51 (5) 20 (2) 1042 (62) 881 (85) 161 (15)
 Stage 3–4 623 (37) 570 (91) 36 (6) 17 (3) 624 (37) 489 (78) 135 (22)
 missing 23 (1) 21 (91) 2 (9) 0 (0) 23 (1) 18 (78) 5 (22)
 Total 1688 (100) 1562 (93) 89 (5) 37 (2) 1689 (100) 1388 (82) 301 (18)
Second-line ARV regimen
 LPV/r + dual NRTI 1097 (65) 1011 (92) 55 (5) 31 (3) 1098 (65) 920 (84) 178 (16)
 ATV/r + dual NRTI 591 (35) 551 (93) 34 (6) 6 (1) 591 (35) 468 (79) 123 (21)
 Total 1688 (100) 1562 (93) 89 (5) 37 (2) 1689 (100) 1388 (82) 301 (18)
Median VL (IQR) 20 (20, 100)       
Viral load results
  ≤ 20 copies/mL 1056 (63) 1002 (95) 43 (4) 11 (1)    
 21–1000 copies/mL 331 (20) 303 (92) 20 (6) 8 (2)    
  > 1000 copies/mL 301 (18) 257 (85) 26 (9) 18 (6)    
 Total 1688 (100) 1562 (93) 89 (5) 37 (2)    
Retention
 Retained      1562 (93) 1305 (84) 257 (16)
 Not retained      126 (7) 82 (65) 44 (35)
 Total      1688 (100) 1387 (82) 301 (18)
  1. VL viral load, TB tuberculosis, BMI body mass index, ART antiretroviral therapy, WHO World Health Organization, ATV/r ritonavir boosted atazanavir, LPV/r ritonavir boosted lopinavir, NRTI nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, IQR interquartile range, LTFU lost to follow-up