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Table 3 Risk of bias in individual studies for combined Studies

From: Impact of physical exercises on immune function, bone mineral density, and quality of life in people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review with meta-analysis

Study Sources/Potential sources of biasa
  Selection bias Performance bias Detection bias Bias due to attrition Reporting bias Other bias Summary of bias Quality indexb
Random sequence generation Allocation conceal-ment Participants and personnel blinding Blinding of outcome assessment Incomplete data Selective reporting    
Mutimura et al. 2008 No Yes Yes Yes No No High Low
Farinatti et al. 2010 No Yes No Yes No No Small sample Low High
Galantino et al. 2005 No Yes Yes Yes No No High Low
  1. The Cochrane’s tool was used to determine and summarize possible sources of risk of bias in the included studies (Cochrane 201) (Yes indicates the presence of or potential presence of a source of bias)
  2. a summary risk of bias in included studies was presented
  3. b studies were subsequently rated as low quality trials (i.e. having high risk of bias) or high quality trials (i.e. having low to moderate risk of bias if there was ≥3 or < 3 identifiable sources of bias respectively (Abaraogu et al. 2017)