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Table 3 Comparison of serum cytokines levels of healthy control, severe EV-A71 HFMD before and after treated with IVIG + RBV, and severe EV-A71 HFMD before and after treated with RBV only

From: Clinical characteristics and managements of severe hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 in Shanghai, China

Cytokine
(pg/mL)
Control (100)
M (IQR)
IVIG+RBV (28)
M (IQR)
(Before treatment)
IVIG+RBV (28)
M (IQR)
(After treatment)
RBV (62)
M (IQR)
(Before treatment)
RBV (62)
M (IQR)
(After treatment)
χ2 P
IL-1β 3.00(2.95,3.53)a 15.30(8.48,42.70)b 3.25(3.00,3.50)c,a 14.95(8.50,42.35)b 3.45(3.20,3.90)c,a 113.926 < 0.001
IL-2 441.00(350.25,543.25)a 1017.00(726.00,1457.00)b 412.00(312.00,474.00)c,a 1014.50(725.00,1483.25)b 442.00(345.00,527.00)c,a 126.676 < 0.001
IL-6 4.05(3.20,4.70)a 16.00(6.78,82.60)b 4.20(3.60,5.10)c,a 15.95(4.78,85.50)b 4.70(3.70,5.70)c,a 72.654 < 0.001
IL-8 46.00(36.75,52.75)a 225.00(57.70,746.00)b 47.00(38.00,52.00)c,a 178.00(40.70,605.00)b 48.00(40.00,55.00)c,a 47.292 < 0.001
IL-10 5.10(3.68,6.25)a 7.82(6.28,10.20)b 4.50(3.60,6.40)c,a 8.55(6.41,14.85)b 4.10(2.80,6.25)c,a 61.261 < 0.001
IFN-γ 7.00(2.00,11.00)a 47.00(39.00,57.00)b 9.40(7.50,19.50)c,a 39.10(34.00,52.00)b 8.00(7.00,12.00)c,a 25.941 < 0.001
TNF-α 4.65(3.75,5.40)a 25.90(16.53,40.85)b 4.20(3.20,5.00)c,a 25.05(12.75,41.98)b 4.80(3.80,5.30)c,a 145.775 < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: IVIG intravenous gamma globulin intervention, RBV ribavirin, M median, IQR interquartile range, IL interleukin, IFN interferon, TNF tumor necrosis factor
  2. a vs b, b vs c statistical significance
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