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Table 3 Univariate and Multiple Logistic Regression Risk Analyses of the Presence of Multiple Beta-lactam Non-Susceptible Isolates* by Explanatory Variables

From: An alarmingly high nasal carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19F non-susceptible to multiple beta-lactam antimicrobials among Vietnamese children

Variables Multiple beta-lactam non-susceptible isolates (n = 40) Other pneumococcal isolates (n = 234) Subtotal Odds ratio (95% CI) (univariate) P Odds ratio (95% CI) (multiple) P
Gender
 Male 22 (14.2%) 133 (85.8%) 155 (100%) Reference    
 Female 18 (15.1%) 101 (84.9%) 119 (100%) 1.08 (0.55–2.11) 0.8285   
Age group
 6–11 m 11 (15.3%) 61 (84.7%) 72 (100%) Reference    
 1–2 yr 26 (15.5%) 142 (84.5%) 168 (100%) 1.02 (0.47–2.18) 0.9689   
  ≥ 3 yr 3 (8.8%) 31 (91.2%) 34 (100%) 0.54 (0.14–2.07) 0.3596   
Daycare attendance
 Yes 29 (19.2%) 122 (80.8%) 151 (100%) 2.42 (1.15–5.07) 0.0167 2.56 (1.22–5.73) 0.0123
 No 11 (8.9%) 112 (91.1%) 123 (100%) Reference    
Situation
 ARI 18 (9.9%) 164 (90.1%) 182 (100%) 0.35 (0.18–0.69) 0.0019 0.48 (0.20–1.08) 0.0764
 Healthy children 22 (23.9%) 70 (76.1%) 92 (100%) Reference    
Living in a large family (≥ 5 persons)
 Yes 26 (17.7%) 121 (82.3%) 147 (100%) 1.73 (0.86–3.49) 0.1193 1.72 (0.84–3.65) 0.1423
 No 14 (11.0%) 113 (88.9%) 127 (100%) Reference    
Prior antibiotic use
 Yes 8 (8.3%) 89 (91.8%) 97 (100%) 0.41 (0.18–0.92) 0.0275 0.65 (0.23–1.76) 0.3975
 No or unknown 32 (18.1%) 145 (81.9%) 177 (100%) Reference    
  1. This analysis was performed for cases with pneumococcal isolates that contained a single serotype (n = 274) after exclusion of ARI cases in children < 6 m
  2. *PEN MIC ≥4 μg/mL, CTX MIC ≥2 μg/mL and MEM MIC ≥0.5 μg/mL