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Table 1 Univariate and Multiple Logistic Regression Analyses of S. pneumoniae Detection in the Nasopharynx by Explanatory Variables

From: An alarmingly high nasal carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19F non-susceptible to multiple beta-lactam antimicrobials among Vietnamese children

Variables Pneumococcal carriage (+) Pneumococcal carriage (−) Subtotal Odds ratio (95% CI) (univariate) P Odds ratio (95% CI) (multiple) P
Gender
 Male 161 (34.1%) 311 472 0.92 (0.69–1.23) 0.5874 0.85 (0.63–1.14) 0.2725
 Female 124 (35.9%) 221 345
Age group
 6–11 m 74 (39.8%) 112 186 Reference   0.63 (0.43–0.93)* 0.0203
 1–2 yr 175 (37.1%) 297 472 0.89 (0.63–1.26) 0.5189
  ≥ 3 yr 36 (22.6%) 123 159 0.44 (0.28–0.71) 0.0007
Daycare attendance
 Yes 156 (37.9%) 256 412 1.30 (0.98–1.74) 0.0714 1.56 (1.13–2.17) 0.0073
 No 129 (31.9%) 276 405
Situation
 ARI 190 (39.1%) 296 486 1.59 (1.18–2.15) 0.0022 1.33 (0.93–1.90) 0.1137
 Healthy children 95 (28.7%) 236 331
Living in a large family (≥ 5 persons)
 Yes 153 (34.9%) 286 439 1.00 (0.75–1.33) 0.9836   
 No 132 (34.9%) 246 378
Prior antibiotic use
 Yes 100 (43.7%) 129 229 1.69 (1.23–2.31) 0.0010 1.42 (0.98–2.05) 0.0621
 No or unknown 185 (31.5%) 403 588
Season
 Apr-Jun 2008 41 (38.3%) 66 107 Reference    
 Jul-Sept 2008 142 (31.8%) 305 447 0.75 (0.48–1.16) 0.1956   
 Oct-Dec 2008 54 (41.2%) 77 131 1.13 (0.67–1.90) 0.6491   
 Jan-Mar 2009 48 (36.4%) 84 132 0.92 (0.54–1.56) 0.7560   
  1. This analysis was performed after exclusion of ARI cases in children under 6 m of age. *: ≥ 1 yr. vs < 1 yr