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Table 3 Predictors of late (> 7 months of age) or no receipt of DTP3 vaccination among urban Dar es Salaam (n = 10,932) and rural Morogoro (n = 19,571) infants

From: Determinants of delayed or incomplete diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination in parallel urban and rural birth cohorts of 30,956 infants in Tanzania

Characteristic Urban Dar es Salaam Rural Morogoro Region p-value for interaction by site
Total N Late or no receipt of DTP3
n (%)
Multivariate Relative Risk (95% CI) p value Total N Late or no receipt of DTP3
n (%)
Multivariate Relative Risk (95% CI) p value
Total cohort 10,932 1751 (16.01%) 19,571 3381 (17.28%)  
Infant sex
 Male 5578 919 (16.48%) 1.06 (0.97–1.15) 0.20 10,406 1801 (17.31%) 1.01 (0.95–1.07) 0.77 0.29
 Female 5350 831 (15.53%) Reference   9165 1580 (17.24%) Reference   
Parity
 Firstborn 2509 423 (16.86%) Reference   4807 886 (18.43%) Reference   0.02
 2nd-4th child 5147 807 (15.68%) 1.10 (0.98–1.25) 0.11 8989 1519 (16.90%) 0.91 (0.84–1.00) 0.04  
 5th or greater child 668 103 (15.42%) 1.19 (0.95–1.48) 0.13 2978 638 (21.42%) 1.18 (1.05–1.32) 0.006  
Birthweight
  Low birthweight (< 2500 g) 942 139 (14.76%) 0.85 (0.73–1.00) 0.050 2713 342 (12.61%) 0.71 (0.64–0.79) <  0.001 0.06
  Normal birthweight (≥2500 g) 9990 1612 (16.14%) Reference   16,858 3039 (18.03%) Reference   
Gestational Age
  Preterm (< 37 weeks) 1478 244 (16.51%) 1.01 (0.89–1.16) 0.84 1861 340 (18.27%) 0.91 (0.82–1.01) 0.09 0.72
  Term (≥37 weeks) 6280 928 (14.78%) Reference   9887 1772 (17.92%) Reference   
Size for gestational Age          
  SGA (<10th percentile) 710 106 (14.93%) 0.90 (0.75–1.08) 0.26 1559 256 (16.42%) 0.92 (0.82–1.04) 0.18 0.55
  No SGA (≥10th percentile) 6922 1041 (15.04%) Reference   9885 1789 (18.10%) Reference   
Maternal age
 < 20 years 1785 347 (19.44%) 1.58 (1.36–1.84) <  0.001* 4472 836 (18.69%) 1.10 (1.00–1.21) <  0.001* 0.02
 20–25 years 3204 481 (15.01%) 1.20 (1.05–1.36)   5219 942 (18.05%) 1.11 (1.02–1.21)   
 25–30 years 2783 356 (12.79%) Reference   5196 865 (16.65%) Reference   
 30–35 years 1378 165 (11.97%) 0.90 (0.76–1.07)   2725 429 (15.74%) 0.92 (0.82–1.02)   
  ≥ 35 years 579 64 (11.05%) 0.81 (0.62–1.04)   1384 220 (15.90%) 0.85 (0.74–0.98)   
Maternal education
 No formal schooling 655 105 (16.03%) 1.00 (0.83–1.21) 0.21* 2175 520 (23.91%) 1.22 (1.10–1.34) <  0.001* 0.049
 Some primary 339 60 (17.70%) 1.05 (0.83–1.33)   1858 416 (22.39%) 1.25 (1.13–1.38)   
 Completed primary 7163 1062 (14.83%) Reference   13,847 2185 (15.78%) Reference   
 Secondary plus 1625 195 (12.00%) 0.86 (0.74–1.00)   1213 177 (14.59%) 0.99 (0.85–1.15)   
Paternal education
 No formal schooling 187 26 (13.90%) 0.84 (0.58–1.22) 0.05* 1197 339 (28.32%) 1.36 (1.22–1.52) <  0.001* 0.004
 Some primary 217 56 (25.81%) 1.66 (1.31–2.10)   1461 316 (21.63%) 1.18 (1.06–1.31)   
 Completed primary 6495 965 (14.86%) Reference   14,459 2360 (16.32%) Reference   
 Secondary plus 2702 336 (12.44%) 0.92 (0.81–1.04)   1887 261 (13.91%) 0.96 (0.85–1.09)   
Wealth quintile
 Q1 (Poorest) 1544 300 (19.43%) 1.25 (1.04–1.49) 0.006* 3938 807 (20.49%) 1.32 (1.18–1.47) <  0.001* <  0.001
 Q2 2276 318 (13.97%) 0.93 (0.78–1.11)   4311 926 (21.48%) 1.37 (1.23–1.52)   
 Q3 1672 250 (14.95%) 1.03 (0.86–1.23)   3222 447 (13.87%) 1.01 (0.89–1.13)   
 Q4 2947 374 (12.69%) 0.91 (0.77–1.08)   3769 584 (15.49%) 1.10 (0.98–1.23)   
 Q5 (Richest) 1258 169 (13.43%) Reference   3793 514 (13.55%) Reference   
Place of birth
 Homea 2614 584 (22.34%) 1.17 (1.08–1.27) <  0.001  
 Facility   16,938 2789 (16.47%) Reference   
Trimester of first ANC visit
 1st Trimester 1108 158 (14.26%) 0.92 (0.79–1.07) <  0.001* 1517 261 (17.21%) 0.89 (0.79–0.99) 0.19* <  0.001
 2nd Trimester 6469 996 (15.40%) Reference   12,350 2288 (18.53%) Reference   
 3rd Trimester 781 187 (23.94%) 1.55 (1.36–1.78)   2014 370 (18.37%) 0.98 (0.89–1.09)   
  1. *p value for trend
  2. aParticipants in Dar es Salaam primarily enrolled from facilities