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Table 2 Exposures related to acute viral and unspecified hepatitis, Egypt, January 2014–June 2017

From: Evidence of sustained reductions in the relative risk of acute hepatitis B and C virus infections, and the increasing burden of hepatitis a virus infection in Egypt: comparison of sentinel acute viral hepatitis surveillance results, 2001–17

  No. exposed Total cases Percent (%) Odds Ratio 95% confidence interval p value
a. Healthcare-associated exposures
 1. Received therapeutic injection*
  HAV 1939 7800 24.9% Ref Ref Ref
  HBV 72 203 35.5% 1.7 1.2–2.3 < 0.001
  HCV 90 233 38.6% 1.9 1.5–2.5 < 0.001
  Unspecified acute hepatitis 309 945 32.7% 1.5 1.3–1.7 < 0.001
  Total 2410 9181 30.9% NA NA NA
 2. Wound suture
  HAV 105 7806 1.3% Ref Ref Ref
  HBV 7 238 2.9% 2.2 1.0–4.8 0.05
  HCV 11 252 4.4% 3.3 1.8–6.3 < 0.001
  Unspecified acute hepatitis 22 959 2.3% 1.7 1.1–2.7 0.02
  Total 145 9255 1.6% NA NA NA
 3. Blood transfusion
  HAV 7 7806 0.1% Ref Ref Ref
  HBV 2 238 0.8% 9.4 2.0–45.7 0.03
  HCV 5 252 2.0% 22.6 7.1–71.6 < 0.001
  Unspecified acute hepatitis 12 959 1.3% 14.1 5.5–35.9 < 0.001
  Total 26 9255 0.3% NA NA NA
 4. Insertion of urinary catheter
  HAV 14 7806 0.2% Ref Ref Ref
  HBV 7 238 2.9% 16.9 6.7–42.2 < 0.001
  HCV 3 252 1.2% 6.7 1.9–23.5 0.01
  Unspecified acute hepatitis 28 959 2.9% 16.7 8.8–32.8 < 0.001
  Total 52 9255 0.6% NA NA NA
 5. Insertion of IV line
  HAV 172 7806 2.2% Ref Ref Ref
  HBV 21 238 8.8% 4.3 2.7–6.9 < 0.001
  HCV 26 252 10.3% 5.1 3.3–7.9 < 0.001
  Unspecified acute hepatitis 84 959 8.8% 4.3 3.2–5.6 < 0.001
  Total 303 9255 3.3% NA NA NA
 6. Surgery
  HAV 110 7806 1.4% Ref Ref Ref
  HBV 10 238 4.2% 3.1 1.6–5.9 < 0.01
  HCV 13 252 5.2% 3.8 2.0–6.7 < 0.001
  Unspecified acute hepatitis 47 959 4.9% 3.6 2.5–5.1 < 0.001
  Total 180 9255 1.9% NA NA NA
 7. Dental procedures
  HAV 492 7806 6.3% Ref Ref Ref
  HBV 17 238 7.1% 1.1 0.7–1.9 0.3
  HCV 23 252 9.1% 1.5 0.9–2.3 0.05
  Unspecified acute hepatitis 74 959 7.7% 1.2 0.9–1.6 0.05
  Total 606 9255 6.5% NA NA NA
b. Lifestyle exposures
 1. Exposure to blood outside health facilities
  HAV 33 7806 0.4% Ref Ref Ref
  HBV 11 238 4.6% 11.4 5.7–22.9 < 0.001
  HCV 6 252 2.4% 5.7 2.4–13.8 < 0.01
  Unspecified acute hepatitis 12 959 1.3% 3 1.5–6.0 < 0.01
  Total 62 9255 0.7% NA NA NA
 2. Being imprisoned in last 6 months
  HAV 12 7806 0.2% Ref Ref Ref
  HBV 5 238 2.1% 13.9 4.9–39.9 < 0.001
  HCV 4 252 1.6% 10.5 3.4–32.7 < 0.001
  Unspecified acute hepatitis 3 959 0.3% 2.0 0.6–7.2 0.2
  Total 24 9255 0.3% NA NA NA
 3. IV drug use
  HAV 6 7806 0.1% Ref Ref Ref
  HBV 35 238 14.7% 224.1 39.2–538.8 < 0.001
  HCV 19 252 7.5% 106 41.9–267.8 < 0.001
  Unspecified acute hepatitis 14 959 1.5% 19.3 7.4–50.2 < 0.001
  Total 74 9255 0.8% NA NA NA
 4. Share tooth brushes
  HAV 118 7806 1.5% Ref Ref Ref
  HBV 3 238 1.3% 0.8 0.3–2.6 0.5
  HCV 3 252 1.2% 0.8 0.2–2.5 0.5
  Unspecified acute hepatitis 6 959 0.6% 0.4 0.2–0.9 0.01
  Total 130 9255 1.4% NA NA NA
 5. Share razors (for males)
  HAV 39 4541 0.9% Ref Ref Ref
  HBV 9 183 4.9% 6 2.8–12.5 < 0.001
  HCV 3 191 1.6% 1.8 0.6–6.0 0.2
  Unspecified acute hepatitis 14 514 2.7% 3.2 1.7–6.0 < 0.001
  Total 65 5429 1.2% NA NA NA
 6. At military service (for males)
  HAV 17 4541 0.4% Ref Ref Ref
  HBV 5 183 2.7% 7.5 2.7–20.5 0.001
  HCV 0 191 0.0% NA NA NA
  Unspecified acute hepatitis 2 514 0.4% 1 0.2–4.5 0.4
  Total 24 5429 0.4% NA NA NA
 7. Labor or abortion (for females)
  HAV 12 3265 0.4% Ref Ref Ref
  HBV 5 55 9.1% 27.1 9.2–79.8 < 0.001
  HCV 2 61 3.3% 9.2 2.0–42.0 0.01
  Unspecified acute hepatitis 36 445 8.1% 23.8 12.3–46.2 < 0.001
  Total 55 3826 1.4% NA NA NA
c. Fecal-oral exposures
 1. Attending nursery
  HAV 1368 7806 17.5%    
  Non-HAVα 38 1449 2.6% 7.9 5.8–10.9 < 0.001
  Total 1406 9255 15.2%    
 2. Contact with person attending nursery
  HAV 1780 7806 22.8%    
  Non-HAVα 209 1449 14.4% 1.8 1.5–2.0 < 0.001
  Total 1989 9255 21.5%    
 3. Contact with a case of HAV
  HAV 617 7806 7.9%    
  Non-HAVα 25 1449 1.7% 4.9 3.3–7.3 < 0.001
  Total 642 9255 6.9%    
 4. Eat meals outside home
  HAV 6514 7806 83.4%    
  Non-HAVα 1055 1449 72.8% 1.9 1.7–2.1 < 0.001
  Total 7569 9255 81.8%    
 5. Animal exposure
  HAV 850 7806 10.9%    
  Non-HAVα 128 1449 8.8% 1.3 1.0–1.5 0.02
  Total 978 9255 10.6%    
  1. * Therapeutic injection excluding 74 patients who reported receiving illegal drugs by injection
  2. α Non-HAV include all cases of HBV, HCV, and unspecified acute hepatitis