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Table 5 Logistic regression analysis of risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcomes at the study site (n = 508)

From: A prospective study of socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of children with tuberculosis in Sindh, Pakistan

Variables Treatment outcomes Univariate analysis P value* Multivariate analysis P value*
Successful n (%) Unsuccessful n (%) COR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Gender
 Male 230 (95.8) 10 (4.2) 1 0.485
 Female 253 (94.4) 15 (5.6) 1.364 (0.60–3.09)    
Age (years)
 ≤ 2 167 (96) 7 (4) 1 0.501
 3–5 118 (98.3) 2 (1.7) 0.269 (0.06–1.15) 0.078
 6–10 132 (95) 7 (5) 1.034 (0.42–2.53) 0.942
 11–14 66 (88) 9 (12) 3.554 (1.50–8.37) 0.004 2.908 (0.78–10.77) 0.110
Residence
 Rural 192 (93.2) 14 (6.8) 1.929 (0.85–4.33) 0.112
 Urban 291 (96.4) 11 (3.6) 1    
Type of TB
 PTB+ 20 (69) 9 (31) 13.022 (5.13–33.04) <  0.001 5.910 (1.64–21.29) 0.007
 PTB- 48 (92.3) 4 (7.7) 1.726 (0.56–5.23) 0.335
 PTBNS 308 (97.8) 7 (2.2) 0.221 (0.09–0.53) 0.001 0.771 (0.24–2.43) 0.657
 EPTB 107 (95.5) 5 (4.5) 1 0.800
Weight(percentiles)
 Underweight 46 (90.2) 5 (9.8) 2.375 (0.85–6.62) 0.098
 Normal 437 (95.6) 20 (4.4) 1    
Registration category at baseline
 New 465 (95.9) 20 (4.1) 1 0.001 0.368 (0.08–1.56) 0.176
 Retreated 18 (78.3) 5 (21.7) 6.458 (2.17–19.15)   2.720 (0.63–11.59)  
ADRs
 Yes 53(79) 14 (21) 10.326 (4.45–23.91) <  0.001 11.601 (4.06–33.12) <  0.001
 No 430 (97.5) 11 (2.5) 1   0.086 (0.03–0.24)  
BCG scar
 Present 412 (94.5) 24 (5.5) 1 0.168
 Absent 71 (98.6) 1 (1.4) 0.242 (0.03–1.81)    
Baseline X-ray
 Normal 125 (95.4) 6 (4.6) 1 0.834   
 Abnormal 300 (94.3) 18 (5.7) 1.569 (0.64–3.82) 0.323
 Not done 58 (98.3) 1 (1.7) 0.305 (0.04–2.30) 0.249   
TST
 Positive (≥ 10 mm) 259 (96.6) 9 (3.4) 1 0.091
 Negative (< 10 mm) 224 (93.3) 16 (6.7) 2.056 (0.89–4.74)    
HHC with TB
 Yes 121 (89.6) 14 (10.4) 3.808 (1.68–8.61) 0.001 3.128 (1.21–8.06) 0.018
 No 362 (97.1) 11 (2.9) 1   0.320 (0.12–0.82)  
Monthly income of family (PKRs)
 <  5000 10 (83.3) 2 (16.7) 4.113 (0.85–19.86) 0.078   
 6000–10,000 148 (96.7) 5 (3.3) 0.566 (0.20–1.53) 0.264   
 11,000–20,000 239 (94.5) 14 (5.5) 1.299 (0.57–2.92) 0.526
 > 20,000 86 (95.6) 4 (4.4) 1 0.818   
Education of caregiver
 No formal education 217 (91.6) 20 (8.4) 4.903 (1.81–13.27) 0.002 0.623 (0.11–3.30) 0.579
 Primary 121 (98.4) 2 (1.6) 0.260 (0.06–1.12) 0.071
 Secondary 76 (98.7) 1 (1.3) 0.223 (0.03–1.67) 0.145
 College 35 (94.6) 2 (5.4) 1 0.888
 Graduation 34 (100) 00
  1. PTB-: smear negative pulmonary TB, PTB+: smear positive pulmonary TB, PTBNS: pulmonary TB with unknown sputum, EPTB: extra-pulmonary TB, COR: crude odd ratio, AOR: adjusted odd ratio, PKRs: Pakistani rupees, ADRs: Adverse drug reactions, * Statistically significant value ≤ 0.05, HHC: household contacts