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Table 2 Studies describing determinants associated with STBBI-related outcomes among cisgender male sex workers in high-income countries

From: Preventing sexually transmitted and blood borne infections (STBBIs) among sex workers: a critical review of the evidence on determinants and interventions in high-income countries

Study Details Outcome Examined Multivariable Associations Reported
Author/Year Country Study Design/Dates Population STBBI Outcome Condom Use Outcome Individual & Interpersonal Determinants Structural Determinants
Fournet et al., 2016 [22] Netherlands Cross-sectional 2006–2012 3053 male sex workers Prevalence of HIV (2.5%), STI (18.1%; syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhoea)   HIV+ status was positively associated with younger age (aRR 2.74, 95%CI 1.15–6.50), and sexual minority (aRR 24.41, 95%CI 3.37–176.88);
Bacterial STIs were positively associated with younger age (aRR 2.30, 95%CI 1.83–2.88), sexual minority (aRR 1.62, 95%CI 1.27–2.06), previous STI in past 2 years (aRR 1.39, 95%CI 1.15–1.68), and HIV+ status (aRR 2.71, 95%CI 1.68–2.64)
HIV+ status was positively associated with not having a previous HIV test (aRR 2.59, 95%CI 1.56–4.29)
Grov et al., 2015 [52] USA Cross-sectional 387 male sex workers (internet-based escorts)   Unprotected anal sex with last client and last non-client Condomless anal sex with last client was positively associated with depression (aOR 1.13, 95%CI 1.02–1.25); Condomless anal sex with last non-client was positively associated with HIV+ status (aOR 12.29, 95%CI 1.56–96.92)  
Mc Grath-Lone et al., 2014 [88] England Cross-sectional Jan-Dec 2011 488 male sex workers Prevalence of HIV (3.7%), syphilis (2.6%), chlamydia (24.7%), gonorrhoea (17.4%)    Being a migrant male sex worker vs. UK-born was positively associated with prevalence of chlamydia (aOR 2.20, 95%CI 1.08–4.49)
Sethi et al., 2006 [21] England (London) Cross-sectional 1994–2003 823 male sex workers HIV prevalence (9.3%); HIV incidence (49 cases)   HIV infection was positively associated with injection drug use and unprotected anal sex with casual partner HIV incidence was positively associated with first attending the clinic earlier, in 1994–1996 vs. 1997–1999 (p = 0.007) or vs. 2000–2003 (p = 0.02)