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Table 1 Estimated rates in severe HFMD cases by time, regions, and population(per 1000 000 people, 95% confidence internal)a

From: Surveillance for severe hand, foot, and mouth disease from 2009 to 2015 in Jiangsu province: epidemiology, etiology, and disease burden

YearsSevere illness rateMortality ratesCase-severity ratesSeverity−fatality rateCase−fatality ratesSeverity-PICU admission ratesSeverity-hospitalization rates
Year
 20094.60(4.14–5.10)0.08(0.03–0.16)4205(3783–4661)17,000(6889–35,350)71.47(28.97–148.60)33,990(18420–57,790)892,400(797800–995,100)
 201016.69(15.79–17.60)0.27(0.17–0.41)1488(1408–1571)16,290(10350–24,480)242.40(154.10–364.20)44,220(33810–56,880)918,500(867300–972,000)
 201125.97(24.86–27.12)0.24(0.15–0.37)1779(1703–1858)9300(5765–14,250)165.50(102.60–253.60)60,210(50250–71,580)882,500(842500–924,000)
 201218.57(17.64–19.54)0.14(0.07–2.42)1268(1205–1334)74,908(3943–13,030)95.09(50.00–165.30)79,070(65630–94,490)909,300(861500–959,600)
 201310.42(9.72–11.15)0.05(0.02–0.12)8559(7990–9158)4848(1541–11,700)41.05(13.19–100.10)167,300(141100–197,000)865,500(803700–930,700)
 201420.73(19.75–21.75)0.08(0.03–0.16)9848(9380–10,330)3645(1477–7582)35.90(14.55–74.66)84,450(71260–99,390)925,300(879700–972,600)
 20154.66(4.20–5.15)0.01(0.00–0.06)3903(3520–4315)2695(134.9–13,290)10.52(0.52–51.88)70,080(46750–101,200)946,100(850900–1,049,000)
Total14.54(14.22–14.86)0.12(0.10–0.16)10,520(10290–10,760)(10,290–10,760)8506(6657–10,720)242.40(154.10–364.20)76,430(70550–82,680)903,700(883000–924,700)
P value p < 0.001p < 0.001p < 0.001p < 0.001p < 0.001p < 0.001p < 0.001
Regions
 Southern25.81(25.14–26.49)0.11(0.07–0.16)13,290(12950–13,640)4294(2815–6292)57.08(37.42–83.63)4920(43640–55,280)912,500(887700–937,800)
 Central3.41(3.08–3.75)0.05(0.02–0.11)2764(2502–3046)15,110(6126–31,430)41.77(16.93–86.89)73,050(49850–103,500)856,400(768900–951,200)
 Northern9.26(8.87–9.68)0.18(0.13–0.24)10,270(9828–10,730))18,920(13580–25,710)194.40(139.50–264.00)152,900(136500–170,700)888,400(847900–930,400)
p value p < 0.001p < 0.05p < 0.001p < 0.001p < 0.001p < 0.001p < 0.001
Age groups
 < 6 months27.52(21.83–34.25)0.00(0.00–0.00)14,350(11390–17,870)0.00(0.00–0.00)0.00(0.00–0.00)157,900(85550–268,400)868,400(677100–1,098,000)
 6-11 months313.9(293.5–335.4)7.24(4.55–10.99)11,280(10550–12,050)23,070(14490–34,990)260.30(163.50394.90)144,200(120500–171,200)899,700(838200–964,500)
 12-23 months502.1(484.3–520.5)5.43(3.18–7.58)14,200(13690–14,720)10,820(7529–15,090)153.70(106.90–214.30)81,500(71690–92,300)905,600(871800–940,400)
 24-35 months304.4(290.3–318.9)1.57(0.77–2.88)11,350(10820–11,890)5161(2517–9470)58.56(28.56–107.50)59,630(48790–71,960)897,400(853700–942,700)
 36-47 months222.6(210.5–235.3)1.44(0.67–2.74)8933(8446–9442)6472(3006–12,290)57.82(26.85–109.80)58,250(45920–72,930)904,500(852700–958,700)
 48-59 months114.8(106.1–124.00)0.00(0.00–0.00)7172(6628–7749)0.00(0.00–0.00)0.00(0.00–0.00)41,270(27530–59,610)907,900(835800–984,700)
 ≥60 months0.93(0.85–1.02)0.00(0.00–0.00)5413(4946–5911)0.00(0.00–0.00)0.00(0.00–0.00)64,050(44290–89,800)919,400(836900–1,008,000)
P value p < 0.001p < 0.001p < 0.001p < 0.001p < 0.001p < 0.001P > 0.05
Gender
 Male18.62(18.12–19.13)0.18(0.13–0.23)11,140(10840–11,450)9492(7100–12,450)105.80(79.11–138.70)78,460(71090–86,390)905,500(879800–931,700)
 female10.39(10.01–10.78)0.07(0.04–0.11)9552(9206–9909)6709(4159–10,280)64.09(39.73–98.22)72,740(63300–83,200)900,400(866000–935,900)
P value p < 0.001p < 0.001P > 0.05P > 0.05p < 0.001P > 0.05P > 0.05
  1. aThe specific numerator and denominator were shown in Additional file 1: Table S1