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Table 1 Biofilm production by H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae isolated alone or together by pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) period

From: Biofilm production by Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from the nasopharynx of children with acute otitis media

Biofilm production Pre-PCV7 Post-PCV7/Pre-PCV13 Post-PCV13 Total
H. influenzae
 Isolated alone 19/32 (59.4%) 15/24 (62.5%) a 11/30 (36.7%) a 45/86 (52.3%) c
 Isolated with S. pneumoniae 24/32 (75%) 28/32 (87.5%) b 20/32 (63.3%) b 72/96 (75.5%) c
 Total 43/64 (67.2%) 43/56 (76.8%) 31/61 (50.8%) 117/181 (64.6%)
S. pneumoniae
 Isolated alone 21/32 (65.6%) 22/32 (68.8%) 21/31 (67.7%) 64/95 (67.4%)
 Isolated with H. influenzae 23/32 (71.9%) 21/32 (64.5%) 20/32 (62.5%) 64/96 (66.3%)
 Total 44/64 (68.8%) 43/64 (66.7%) 41/63 (65.1%) 128/191 (66.8%)
  1. a H. influenzae isolated alone between the post-PCV7/prePCV13 and post-PCV13 periods p = 0.05
  2. b H. influenzae associated with S. pneumoniae between the post-PCV7/pre-PCV13 and post-PCV13 periods p = 0.02
  3. c Total of H. influenzae alone or associated with S. pneumoniae independent of period p = 0.001