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Table 2 Comparison of the groups with high and low IFN-γ and IL-6 levels among the patients on ART at entry

From: Clinical characteristics of HIV-1-infected patients with high levels of plasma interferon-γ: a multicenter observational study

  High IFN-γ Low IFN-γ P-value High IL-6 Low IL-6 P-value
N 39 149   38 150  
Age (year), median [IQR] 40 [33–44] 43 [36–52] 0.0349* 45 [37–53] 42 [35–51] 0.2683
Age < 50 (n, %) 35 (90%) 101 (68%) 0.0051* 25 (66%) 111 (74%) 0.3166
Males (n, %) 39 (100%) 146 (98%) 1.000 38 (100%) 147 (98%) 1.000
Assumed route of HIV-1 infection (n, %)    0.7044    0.1995
 Homosexual 34 (87%) 123 (83%)   35 (92%) 122 (81%)  
 Heterosexual 4 (10%) 23 (15%)   2 (5%) 25 (17%)  
 Others 1 (3%) 3 (2%)   1 (3%) 3 (2%)  
Japanese (n, %) 38 (97%) 148 (99%) 0.3727 38 (100%) 148 (99%) 1.0000
CD4+ cell count (cell/μL), median [IQR] 491 [396–659] 535 [443–736] 0.271 531 [419–711] 538[442–735] 0.5293
HIV-1-RNA level (copies/mL), median [IQR] < 20 [< 20–< 20] < 20 [< 20–< 20] 0.5856 < 20 [< 20–< 20] < 20 [< 20–< 20] 0.9208
Abacavir use (n, %) 7 (18%) 52 (35%) 0.0523 9 (24%) 50 (33%) 0.3285
Tenofovir use (n, %) 30 (77%) 92 (62%) 0.0911 28 (74%) 94 (63%) 0.2548
Protease inhibitor use (n, %) 10 (26%) 65 (44%) 0.0449* 14 (37%) 61 (41%) 0.7140
 Darunavir use (n, %) 10 (26%) 51 (34%) 0.3428 9 (24%) 52 (35%) 0.2458
 Atazanavir use (n, %) 0 (0%) 4 (3%) 0.5820 1 (3%) 3 (2%) 1.0000
 Lopinavir use (n, %) 0 (0%) 5 (4%) 0.5854 3 (8%) 2 (1%) 0.0571
 Fosamprenavir use (n, %) 0 (0%) 5 (3%) 0.5854 1 (3%) 4 (3%) 1.0000
Integrase inhibitor use (n, %) 24 (62%) 73 (49%) 0.2079 24 (63%) 73 (49%) 0.1457
Duration of ART (year), median [IQR] 3.8 [1.8–6.3] 4.4 [2.4–6.6] 0.2283 3.4 [1.8–5.9] 4.4 [2.5–6.7] 0.0438*
Frequency of ART exchange, median [IQR] 0 [0–1] 1 [0–2] 0.4936 0 [0–1] 1 [0–2] 0.0607
Comorbidities
 Chronic renal disease (n, %) 3 (8%) 18 (12%) 0.5747 2 (5%) 19 (13%) 0.2572
 Chronic hepatitis B (n, %) 3 (8%) 13 (9%) 1.0000 2 (5%) 14 (9%) 0.5333
 Dyslipidemia (n, %) 6 (15%) 49 (33%) 0.0476* 12 (31%) 43 (29%) 0.6957
 Statin use (n, %) 1 (3%) 13 (9%) 0.3072 1 (3%) 13 (9%) 0.3078
 Hypertension (n, %) 3 (8%) 18 (12%) 0.5747 6 (16%) 15 (10%) 0.3850
 Diabetes mellitus (n, %) 1 (3%) 12 (8%) 0.3088 6 (16%) 7 (5%) 0.0266*
Laboratory test
 Serum C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 0.05 [0.02–0.10] 0.06 [0.03–0.17] 0.2224 0.10 [0.04–0.46] 0.05 [0.03–0.11] 0.0073*
  1. Abbreviations: IQR = interquartile range, HIV-1 = human immunodeficiency virus 1, ART = Antiretroviral therapy
  2. *Significant difference