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Table 2 Patients with a viral load ≥1000 copies/ml, in Ruhengeri hospital and Musanze health center, in Rwanda, in 2016

From: Viral load detection and management on first line ART in rural Rwanda

Characteristics VL done in 2016 Patients with VL ≥ 1000 copies in 2016
N(%) Crude OR (95%IC) P-value Adjusted OR (95%IC) P-value
Total 510 59 (11.5)     
Sex
 Female 345 29 (8.4) 1-   1-  
 Male 165 30 (18.2) 2.4 (1.4–4.2) 0.001 2.1 (1.1–4.0) 0.02
Age group 0.07   
 30–49 304 30 (9.9) 1-   
 15–29 109 12 (11.0) 1.1 (0.5–2.3) 0.7   
 50 et Plus 55 7 (12.7) 1.3 (0.5–3.2) 0.5   
 0–14 42 10 (23.8) 2.8 (1.3–6.4) 0.01   
Health facility
 Hospital 240 29 (12.1) 1-   
 Health center 270 30 (11.1) 0.9 (0.5–1.5) 0.7   
Area of residence 0.9   
  < 5 km 348 41 (11.8) 1-   
 5-10 km 148 16 (10.8) 0.9 (0.5–1.7) 0.8   
  > 10 km 14 2 (14.3) 1.2 (0.2–5.8) 0.8   
Marital status
 Married 292 30 (10.3) 1-   
 Not married 218 29 (13.3) 1.3 (0.8–2.3) 0.3   
Current occupation 0.01   
 Farmer 311 30 (9.6) 1-   1-  
 Public/private servant 133 15 (11.3) 1.2 (0.6–2.3) 0.6 1.1 (0.5–2.3) 0.8
 Unemployed 59 11 (18.6) 2.1 (1.0–4.5) 0.05 1.3 (0.5–3.1) 0.5
 Sex worker 7 3 (42.9) 7.0 (1.5–32.8) 0.01 6.4 (1.1–36.0) 0.03
Mode of enrollment 0.3   
 VCT 262 33 (12.6) 1-   
 PIT 85 13 (15.3) 1.2 (0.6–2.5) 0.5   
 PMTCT 100 7 (7.0) 0.5 (0.2–1.2) 0.1   
 Transferred In 63 6 (9.5) 0.7 (03–1.8) 0.5   
WHO Clinical stage < 0.001   
 1 264 25 (9.5) 1-   1-  
 2 99 18 (18.2) 2.1 (1.1–4.1) 0.02 1.7 (0.8–3.6) 0.07
 3 138 11 (8.0) 0.8 (0.4–1.7) 0.6 0.7 (0.3–1.7) 0.49
 4 9 5 (55.6) 11.9 (3.0–47.3) < 0.001 8.8 (1.8–43.0) 0.007
CD4 count 0.002   
 500 et Plus 158 10 (6.3) 1-    
 200–500 292 35 (12.0) 2.0 (0.97–4.2) 0.06   
 0–199 60 14 (23.3) 4.5 (1.9–10.8) 0.001   
Initial ART regimen
 TDF + 3TC + EFV 443 49 (11.1) 1-   
Other regimen 67 10 (14.9) 1.4 (0.7–2.9) 0.4   
Previous VL test < 0.001   
  < 20 copies/ml 343 19 (5.5) 1-   1-  
 20–1000 copies/ml 49 7 (14.3) 2.8 (1.1–7.1) 0.03 2.4 (0.9–6.3) 0.07
  > 1000 copies/ml 75 25 (33.3) 8.5 (4.4–16.6) 0.000 7.2 (3.5–14.5) < 0.001
 No previous VL test 43 8 (18.6) 3.9 (1.6–9.5) 0.002 3.1 (1.2–8.1) 0.02
  1. ART: antiretroviral therapy; km: kilometer; ml: milliliter; N: number; OR: odds ratio; PIT: provider initiated testing; PMTCT: prevention mother to child transmission; VCT: voluntary counselling and testing; VL: viral load; WHO: World Health Organization