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Table 1 Characteristics of adults with HIV stratified by tuberculosis status

From: Subclinical tuberculosis among adults with HIV: clinical features and outcomes in a South African cohort

  All Individuals
N=654
Active TB
N=96
Subclinical TB
N=28
No Microbiologic TB/ATT1
N=40
No Microbiologic TB/No ATT
N=490
P Value
Demographics
 Mean age, years (SD) 34 (9) 35 (9) 33 (9) 36 (11) 34 (10) 0.55 2
 Men 348 (53%) 65 (68%) 14 (50%) 21 (53%) 248 (51%) 0.02
 Education: high school or higher 249 (38%) 34 (36%) 8 (29%) 12 (30%) 195 (40%) 0.39
 Marital status
  Never married 542 (83%) 83 (87%) 22 (79%) 32 (80%) 405 (83%) 0.53
  Currently married 89 (14%) 9 (9%) 6 (21%) 7 (18%) 67 (14%) 0.29
Clinical
 Current tobacco 160 (25%) 19 (20%) 7 (25%) 8 (20%) 126 (26%) 0.61
 Prior TB treatment 53 (8%) 8 (8%) 0 3 (8%) 42 (9%) 0.34
TB-related symptoms
 None 243 (37%) 0 28 (100%) 7 (18%) 208 (42%) --
 Any 1 symptom 139 (21%) 23 (24%) 0 11 (28%) 105 (21%) --
 Any 2 symptoms 116 (18%) 73 (76%) 0 22 (55%) 177 (36%) --
 Any 3 symptoms 85 (13%) 53 (55%) 0 14 (35%) 89 (18%) --
 All 4 symptoms 71 (11%) 23 (24%) 0 6 (15%) 42 (9%) --
Median CD4 cell count (IQR), cells/mm3 206 (81 – 349) 68 (39 – 161) 136 (72 - 312) 90 (40 – 180) 249 (125 – 394) <0.001
 <100 170 (30%) 55 (62%) 10 (37%) 21 (54%) 84 (20%) <0.001
 100-200 108 (19%) 18 (20%) 8 (30%) 9 (23%) 73 (18%) 0.36
 >200 289 (51%) 16 (18%) 9 (33%) 9 (23%) 255 (62%) <0.001
Eligible for ART initiation3 288 (51%) 79 (89%) 22 (81%) 30 (77%) 157 (38%) <0.001
TB test results
 AFB smear positive 21 (3%) 13 (14%) 8 (29%) 0 0 0.08
  Low 2 0 2    
  + 9 6 3    
  ++ 3 2 1    
  +++ 7 5 2    
M. tuberculosis culture 124 (19%) 96 (100%) 28 (100%) 0 0 --
 positive       
 Urine LAM positive 99 (15%) 35 (37%) 7 (25%) 9 (23%) 48 (10%) <0.001
  1. Abbreviations: AFB acid fast bacilli, ART antiretroviral therapy, ATT anti-tuberculous therapy, IQR interquartile range, LAM lipoarabinomannan, SD standard deviation, TB tuberculosis
  2. 1Empiric ATT
  3. 2P values compare all four subgroups with the exception of AFB smear positive and M. tuberculosis culture positive where active TB and subclinical TB only are compared
  4. 3ART was offered to all participants according to contemporaneous South African Department of Health and WHO guidelines and initiated at CD4 ≤350 cells/mm3 for groups with TB disease (included here as active and subclinical TB as well no microbiologic TB/ATT) and CD4 ≤200 cells/mm3 for no microbiologic TB/no ATT. CD4 data was available for 567 of 654 participants