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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate regression analysis assessing risk factors for healthcare system diagnostic delay > 10 weeks

From: Determinants of patient and health care services delays for tuberculosis diagnosis in Italy: a cross-sectional observational study

Factors Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Age (years) 1.00 (0.98;1.02) 1 (0.96; 1.03)
Female gender 1.60 (0.75;3.38) 1.90 (0.65; 5.55)
Nationality
 Italian 1 1
 African 1.43 (0.52;3.93) 0.63 (0.11; 3.57)
 South-American 0.45 (0.11;1.83) 0.20 (0.03; 1.35)
 Asian 1.43 (0.52;3.93) 1.09 (0.23; 5.12)
 Eastern European 0.55 (0.15;2.00) 0.58 (0.10; 3.38)
Living in Italy for < 5 years 1.09 (0.45;2.64) 1.00 (0.28; 3.65)
Annual income
  ≥ 10,000 € 1 1
  < 10,000 € 1.99 (0.89;4.45) 1.78 (0.60; 5.27)
 No source of income 1.30 (0.43;3.97) 1.74 (0.39; 7.73)
Housing conditions
 Living with others 1  
 Living with family 1.14 (0.51;2.55)  
 Living alone 0.38 (0.09;1.51)  
School degree
 University degree 1  
 Primary/secondary school degree 1.90 (0.37;9.82)  
 High school diploma 2.10 (0.41;10.79)  
Occupation
 Unemployed 1  
 Employed/Retired 3.55 (0.42;29.88)  
 Student 3.50 (0.28;43.16)  
Comorbidities 0.57 (0.22;1.45) 0.58 (0.17; 2.04)
Social conditions 0.24 (0.03;2.02) 0.70 (0.07; 7.41)
History of potential exposure 0.50 (0.20;1.28) 0.67 (0.20; 2.27)
Extra-pulmonary TB 4.09 (1.82;9.22) 4.34 (1.36; 13.81)
Absence of respiratory symptoms 2.57 (1.19;5.55) 3.29 (1.17; 9.23) a
First assessment by the General Practitioner 5.95 (2.66;13.31) 5.09 (1.78; 14.54)
Patient delay (per week longer) 1.00 (0.99;1.02) 0.99 (0.97; 1.01)
  1. Statistically significant results are shown in italics
  2. aassessed in a separate multivariable model not including extra-pulmonary TB
  3. Abbreviations: OR Odd Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, TB Tuberculosis